• chicken;
  • Gallus gallus f. domestica;
  • bone artefact;
  • tibiotarsus;
  • Early Islamic period;
  • al-Hadir;
  • Syria


Two modified chicken tibiotarsi have been discovered in a rubbish pit dated to the second half of the 7th century AD (Early Islam, Umayyad period) at al-Hadir, in north-west Syria. They both exhibit similar use-wear marks. A detailed description of cut marks, fine striae and polish allows to reconstruct the processing of the bones. Extracted from two cocks' carcasses, the tibiotarsi were used in their entirety with slight manufacturing modifications. Use marks in the form of polish and fine scratches indicate that the bones were held in the hand and probably served as a spool for thread. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.