A study was conducted on a collection of 123 juvenile skeletons from various sites dating to the Bronze Age (Argar culture) and from the medieval cemeteries of La Torrecilla, Villanueva de Soportilla and San Baudelio, all in the Iberian Peninsula. No cranial trauma was observed. However, four postcranial fractures were found, including three from Castellón Alto, a typical Argaric village of some urban complexity built on steep terraces in high and rugged terrain. The combination of a hazardous environment and a climate that encourages outdoor play may explain the relatively high frequency of childhood trauma in the burials from the Argar culture. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.