The aim of this study was to investigate an individual from a Cassino necropolis of the 3rd century BC. The inhumation shows a rectangular wound between the sagittal and lambdoid sutures of the cranium. Furthermore a series of pathological traces on the post-cranial skeleton are present. The trepanation of the skull seems intentional: probably a healed surgical procedure to treat a sword wound. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.