Longitudinal study shows increasing obesity and hyperglycemia in micronesia


  • Disclosure: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

  • Funding agencies: This material is based in part upon work supported by the Texas Norman Hackerman Advanced Research Program under Grant No. [THECB] 02006; NHARP proposal number 0049-0041-2009.

Correspondence: Paul Farand (pbonnen@bcm.edu)



Obesity and diabetes are particularly high in indigenous populations exposed to a Western diet and lifestyle. The prevalence of obesity, diabetes, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in one such population, the Micronesian island of Kosrae was described.

Design and Methods

Longitudinal screenings for metabolic traits were conducted on adult Kosraens ≥ 20 years of age in 1994 and again in 2001. Data was obtained on 3,106 Kosraens, comprising ∼80% of the adult population. Diabetes was diagnosed using World Health Organization guidelines. Prevalences of obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were assessed.


The overall age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes increased from 14 to 21%. The most significant change observed in the population was increases in obesity and hyperglycemia, especially among young Kosraens and women. Obesity age-adjusted prevalence increased from 45 to 62%, and hyperglycemia age-adjusted prevalence increased from 19 to 44%. Of note, Kosraens as a group had unusually low high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels with 80% classified as low HDL by NCEP-ATPIII criteria, despite lacking the usually accompanying increase in triglycerides. Comparison to reports from other populations shows that Kosrae experiences one of the highest rates of obesity, hyperglycemia, and low HDL globally while maintaining relatively healthy levels of triglycerides.


Our study shows a dramatic increase in obesity and hyperglycemia in Kosrae in just 7 years and forebodes significantly increased health risks for this part of the world.