• 1
    Prospective Studies Collaboration, Lewington S, Whitlock G et al. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths. Lancet 2007; 370: 1829-1839.
  • 2
    The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease. JAMA 2009; 302: 1993-2000.
  • 3
    Kappelle PJ, Gansevoort RT, Hillege JL, Wolffenbuttel BH, Dullaart RPF; PREVEND study group. Apolipoprotein B/A-I and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in the general population independently of nonlipid risk factors, albuminuria and C-reactive protein. J Intern Med 2011; 269: 232-242.
  • 4
    Borggreve SE, de Vries R, Dullaart RPF. Alterations in high-density lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus: role of lipolytic enzymes, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer proteins. Eur J Clin invest 2003; 33: 1051-1069.
  • 5
    Kontush A, Chapman MJ. Functionally defective high-density lipoprotein: a new therapeutic target at the crossroads of dyslipidemia, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Rev 2006; 58: 342-374.
  • 6
    Navab M, Anantharamaiah GM, Reddy ST, Van Lenten BJ, Fogelman AM. HDL as a biomarker, potential therapeutic target, and therapy. Diabetes 2009; 58: 2711-2717.
  • 7
    Corsetti JP, Gansevoort RT, Sparks CE, Dullaart RPF. Inflammation reduces HDL protection against primary cardiac risk. Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40: 483-489.
  • 8
    Dullaart RPF. Increased coronary heart disease risk determined by high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein: modulation by variation in the CETP gene. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 1502-1503.
  • 9
    James RW, Deakin SP. The importance of high-density lipoproteins for paraoxonase-1 secretion, stability, and activity. Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 37: 1986-1994.
  • 10
    Chait A, Han CY, Oram JF, Heinecke JW. Lipoprotein-associated inflammatory proteins: markers or mediators of cardiovascular disease? J Lipid Res 2005; 46: 389-403.
  • 11
    Alwaili K, Bailey D, Awan Z et al. HDLproteome in acute coronary syndromes shifts to an inflammatory profile. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011; Epub ahead of print.
  • 12
    Davidsson P, Hulthe J, Fagerberg B, Camejo G. Proteomics of apolipoproteins and associated proteins from plasma high-density lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 156-163.
  • 13
    Chetty PS, Mayne L, Lund-Katz S, Stranz D, Englander SW, Phillips MC. Helical structure and stability in human apolipoprotein A-I by hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106: 19005-19010.
  • 14
    Coetzee GA, Strachan AF, van der Westhuyzen DR, Hoppe HC, Jeenah MS, de Beer FC. Serum amyloid A-containing human high density lipoprotein 3. Density, size, and apolipoprotein composition. J Biol Chem 1986; 261: 9644-9651.
  • 15
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 836-843.
  • 16
    Johnson BD, Kip KE, Marroquin OC, et al. Serum amyloid A as a predictor of coronary artery disease and cardiovascular outcome in women: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). Circulation 2004; 109: 726-732.
  • 17
    Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M, et al. Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: prospective study and updated meta-analyses. BMJ 2000; 321: 199-204.
  • 18
    Jylhävä J, Haarala A, Eklund C, et al. Serum amyloid A is independently associated with metabolic risk factors but not with early atherosclerosis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Intern Med 2009; 266: 286-295.
  • 19
    Jacobs M, van Greevenbroek MM, van der Kallen CJ, et al. Low-grade inflammation can partly explain the association between the metabolic syndrome and either coronary artery disease or severity of peripheral arterial disease: the CODAM study. Eur J Clin Invest 2009; 39: 437-444.
  • 20
    Kappelle PJWH, Bijzet J, Hazenberg BP, Dullaart RPF. Lower serum paraoxonase-1 activity is related to higher serum amyloid a levels in metabolic syndrome. Arch Med Res 2011; 42: 219-225.
  • 21
    Hansel B, Giral P, Nobecourt E, et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with elevated oxidative stress and dysfunctional dense high-density lipoprotein particles displaying impaired antioxidative activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 4963-4971.
  • 22
    Annema W, Nijstad N, Tölle M, et al. Myeloperoxidase and serum amylod A contribute to impaired in vivo reverse cholesterol transport during the acute phase response but not groupIIA secretory phospholipase A2. J Lipid Res 2010; 51: 743-754.
  • 23
    Mulder DJ, de Boer JF, Graaff R, et al. Skin autofluorescence is inversely related to HDL anti-oxidative capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis 2011; 218: 102-106.
  • 24
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005; 112: 2735-2752.
  • 25
    Windgassen EB, Funtowicz L, Lunsford TN, Harris LA, Mulvagh SL. C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: an update for clinicians. Postgrad Med 2011; 123: 114-119.
  • 26
    Nijstad N, de Boer JF, Lagor WR, et al. Overexpression of apolipoprotein O does not impact on plasma HDL levels or functionality in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic mice. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011; 1811: 294-299.
  • 27
    Tietge UJ, Pratico D, Ding T, et al. Macrophage-specific expression of group IIA sPLA2 results in accelerated atherogenesis by increasing oxidative stress. J Lipid Res 2005; 46: 1604-1614.
  • 28
    Hazenberg BP, Limburg PC, Bijzet J, van Rijswijk MH. A quantitative method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 58: 96-102.
  • 29
    Selvin S. Statistical analysis of epidemiological data. New York: Oxford University press; 1996.
  • 30
    Kappelle PJ, de Boer JF, Perton FG, et al. Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the antioxidative functionality of HDL. Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42: 487-95.
  • 31
    Kontush A, de Faria EC, Chantepie S, Chapman MJ. A normotriglyceridemic, low HDL-cholesterol phenotype is characterised by elevated oxidative stress and HDL particles with attenuated antioxidative activity. Atherosclerosis 2005; 182: 277-285.
  • 32
    Dullaart RPF, Constantinides A, Perton FG, et al. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, but not cholesterol esterification, is related to lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2: possible contribution to an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96: 1077-1084.
  • 33
    Dullaart RPF, Groen AK, Dallinga-Thie GM, de Vries R, Sluiter WJ, van Tol A. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low HDL cholesterol. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158: 53-60.
  • 34
    Nobécourt E, Tabet F, Lambert G, et al. Nonenzymatic glycation impairs the antiinflammatory properties of apolipoprotein A-I. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010; 30: 766-772.
  • 35
    Hedrick CC, Thorpe SR, Fu MX, et al. Glycation impairs high-density lipoprotein function. Diabetologia 2000; 43: 312-320.
  • 36
    Kotani K, Satoh N, Kato Y, et al. A novel oxidized low-density lipoprotein marker, serum amyloid A-LDL, is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis 2009; 204: 526-31.
  • 37
    Tellis CC, Tselepis AD. The role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis may depend on its lipoprotein carrier in plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1791: 327-338.
  • 38
    Kujiraoka T, Iwasaki T, Ishihara M, et al. Altered distribution of plasma PAF-AH between HDLs and other lipoproteins in hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. J Lipid Res 2003; 44: 2006-2014.
  • 39
    Constantinides A, van Pelt LJ, van Leeuwen JJ, et al. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass in nondiabetic subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41: 820-827.