SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

Objective:

Obesity is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Both conditions are proinflammatory and proposed to deteriorate cardiac function. We used a nested cohort study design to evaluate the long-term impact of bariatric surgery on OSA and how weight loss and OSA relate to inflammation and cardiac performance.

Design and Methods:

At 10-year follow-up in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, we identified 19 obese subjects (BMI 31.2 ± 5.3 kg m−2), who following bariatric surgery at SOS-baseline had displayed sustained weight losses (surgery group), and 20 obese controls (BMI 42.0 ± 6.2 kg m−2), who during the same time-period had maintained stable weight (control group). All study participants underwent overnight polysomnography examination, echocardiography and analysis of inflammatory markers.

Results:

The surgery group displayed a lower apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (19.9 ± 21.5 vs. 37.8 ± 27.7 n/h, P = 0.013), lower inflammatory activity (hsCRP 2.3 ± 3.0 vs. 7.2 ± 5.0 mg L−1, P < 0.001), reduced left ventricular mass (165 ± 22 vs. 207 ± 22 g, P < 0.001) and superior left ventricular diastolic function (E/A ratio 1.24 ± 1.10 vs. 1.05 ± 0.20, P = 0.006) as compared with weight stable obese controls. In multiple regression analyses including all subjects (n = 39) and controlling for BMI, the AHI remained independently associated with hsCRP (β = 0.09, P < 0.001), TNF-α (β = 0.03, P = 0.031), IL-6 (β = 0.01, P = 0.007), IL 10 (β = −0.06; P = 0.018), left ventricular mass (β = 0.64, P < 0.001), left atrial area (β = 0.08, P = 0.002), pulmonary artery pressure (β = 0.08, P = 0.011) and E/Ea ratio (β = 0.04, P = 0.021).

Conclusions:

Patients with sustained weight loss after bariatric surgery display less severe sleep apnea, reduced inflammatory activity, and enhanced cardiac function. Persisting sleep apnea appears to limit the beneficial effect of weight loss on inflammation and cardiac performance.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

Obesity is an important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a syndrome characterized by the partial or complete recurrent collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep (1). The prevalence of OSA increases along with the degree of obesity (2, 3) and the two conditions share a common influence on inflammatory activity and cardiac function.

Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue generates a rich source of humoral mediators, including proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Obesity is also associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), reflecting a state of low-grade inflammation (4). OSA, per se, has been linked to higher concentrations of TNF-α and IL- 6 (5) and circulating cytokine levels are reduced following treatment of the sleep disorder (6). Recently, Punjabi and Beamer (7) reported on an association between OSA and elevated levels of CRP independent of obesity markers.

Obesity is known to influence the structure and function of the heart, partly through the increased hemodynamic load that accompanies body fat accumulation. Sleep apnea may also contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, most likely via hypoxia-induced sympathetic activation and hypertension (8). Interestingly, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction, presumably by direct induction of myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and apoptosis (9).

It has been proposed that the cardiovascular risk associated with obesity is amplified by OSA (10, 11) and that low-grade systemic inflammation may provide a common intermediary pathway between these conditions and the development of cardiac disorders. However, to what degree interactions between obesity, OSA and inflammation are involved in the pathogenic process of cardiovascular disease in these patients has not yet been resolved.

Short-term weight loss provides a benefit with respect to obesity-related OSA (12, 13), inflammation (14) and cardiac dysfunction (15). However, to what extent OSA is improved long-term following surgical obesity intervention is still largely unresolved (16, 17). This is of importance since persistent sleep apnea may have a negative impact on the outcomes of bariatric surgery. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effects of surgically induced weight loss on sleep disordered breathing and to evaluate how the presence of sleep apnea relates to circulating inflammatory markers and cardiac performance.

Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

The SOS study is a prospective, controlled, surgical interventional trial, which enrolled 4,047 obese subjects at 25 surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden. The study protocol is described in detail elsewhere (18, 19). Briefly, the surgery group comprised 2,010 eligible subjects desiring surgery and, at the same time, a matched control group of 2,037 obese subjects. Inclusion criteria were age ranging from 37 to 60 years and BMI of ≥ 34 for men and of ≥38 or more for women. The exclusion criteria, aiming to obtain operable patients, were the same for both study groups. At SOS-baseline information about sleep apnea was collected through self-administered questionnaires, using questions that have been validated against polysomnography and applied in previous sleep-surveys in Sweden (20, 21). Patients were asked if a family member had observed frequent pauses in breathing during sleep (yes/no). Patients were also asked to rank on a five-point scale the presence of load and disrupting snoring and daytime sleepiness (never, rarely, sometimes, often, and very often). Subjects reporting “often” or “very often” were considered to be frequent snorers or to have frequent daytime sleepiness.

Present study population

Patients enrolled in the present smaller substudy were recruited amongst participants of the SOS study who were subjected to 10-year follow-up at our local study center at Sahlgrenska hospital during 2007. To be included in the study, surgery patients were to display a weight loss >15% compared with SOS-baseline and obese control patients a weight change of <5%. In all, we recruited 39 subjects, including 19 surgery patients and 20 obese controls. The study group comprised 26 women and 13 men in the age range 52-71 years. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee at the University of Gothenburg (Approval number: S 341 01), and all study subjects gave their informed consent to participate.

Clinical measurements and inflammatory markers

Weight and height were determined to the nearest 0.5 kg and 0.5 cm, respectively. Blood pressure was measured in the supine position after 10-min rest and the mean of two recordings was registered. Blood samples were obtained in the morning after a 12-h fast and inflammatory cytokines, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were quantified using an ultra-sensitive bead-based assay (Human TH1/TH2 10-Plex Ultra-Sensitive kit; MSD, Gaithersburg, MD).

Overnight polysomnography

Polysomnography at 10-year follow-up included the following signals: two leads of EEG (C4A1; C3A2), two leads of EOG, and a submental EMG continuously registered by surface electrodes. A one-channel ECG was continuously registered. Leg movements were detected by an anterior tibialis electromyogram. Airflow was monitored by combined oronasal thermistors and a nasal pressure canula, abdominal and chest wall movements by inductive plethysmography, and arterial oxygen saturation was measured by finger pulse oximetry. All recordings were stored in a computerized polysomnography system (Embla A10, Flaga, Reykjavik). Sleep stages were manually scored by a trained sleep technician using the Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria (22) and the ASDA criteria (23) for event and arousal scoring. An apnea/hypopnea event was scored if there was a clear decrease (≥50%) in the amplitude of a valid measure of airflow (either by thermistors or nasal canula pressure transducer) during sleep (for hypopnea a ≥3% oxygen desaturation or an associated arousal was required) or the combination of a ≥30% reduction in airflow (compared to pre-event baseline) with at least a 4% reduction of oxygen saturation. A minimum event duration of 10 s is required. The total number of apnea and hypopnea episodes per hour was divided by total sleep time to calculate the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), which was used as the primary study parameter. The number of dips SaO2 ≥4% per hour of sleep (oxygen saturation index—ODI) was also determined.

In a statistical subanalysis, patients were categorized according to whether their AHI was above or below 20, which was close to the median AHI value for the total study population, and allowed for statistical comparison between subsets. Thus, for each study group, two subsets were generated reflecting a high (AHI > 20) versus low (AHI < 20) intensity of sleep apnea. For convenience, subjects with AHI > 20 are designated in the text as having “high levels of OSA activity” and those with AHI < 20 as having “low levels OSA activity.” In a recent study by Gooneratne et al. (24), an AHI above 20 was associated with a higher mortality hazard ratio. Further, this cut-off level has been applied in studies examining how sleep disordered breathing relates to congestive heart failure (25) and outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy (25, 26).

Echocardiography

Echocardiography at 10-year follow-up was performed using commercially available standard equipment. Data was acquired with the subject in the left lateral decubitus position at end-expiration. All measurements were averages deriving from three consecutive cardiac cycles. All recordings were made by experienced physicians and analyzed by a single observer blinded to study subject classification using customized dedicated research software (Echopac, GE Vingmed Sound, Horten, Norway). The left ventricular mass was determined using the truncated ellipsoid model according to Byrd et al. (27). Planimetry of the left atrium was performed from a late systolic stop frame with the maximum atrial area. LV ejection fraction was calculated according to the Simpson's rule (28). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was obtained by calculating the pressure gradient between the right ventricle and atrium from the peak velocity of tricuspid regurgitant flow and adding the estimated value of right atrial pressure. Measurements of early flow velocity (E) and peak velocity during atrial systole (A) were obtained and the ratio E/A was calculated. Myocardial tissue Doppler imaging was performed from the apical four-chamber view. Early (Ea) diastolic tissue velocities were recorded at the septal corner of the mitral annulus and the ratio of early diastolic mitral flow velocity to early diastolic tissue velocity (E/Ea) was subsequently calculated.

Statistics

Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS for Windows version 15 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Descriptive data are summarized as the mean (standard deviation) or proportions (%). Comparisons between groups and between subsets within groups were made by unpaired t tests for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical data. After pooling data from the two study groups, multiple regression analyses were used to examine how apnea/hypopnea index and BMI were related to inflammatory markers and echocardiography measures of cardiac structure and function. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant.

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

Clinical characteristics and sleep-questionnaire data for the surgery and control groups at SOS-baseline are shown in Table 1. At this time-point, before intervention, the two study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, BMI, blood pressure, and comorbidities. Furthermore, the two groups reported similar rates of witnessed sleep apnea, loud and disruptive snoring and daytime sleepiness indicating a comparable prevalence of OSA at SOS-baseline.

Table 1. Clinical characteristics and sleep-questionnaire data for the two study groups at baseline in the SOS study (SD or %)
 Surgery group (n = 19)Control group (n = 20)P value
  1. BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure.

Age (yrs)49.6 (5.1)50.8 (4.7)Ns
Sex, male/female (no)8/115/15Ns
BMI, kg m−240.6 (4.3)39.6 (4.0)Ns
Systolic BP, mmHg142.6 (14.0)140.1 (15.8)Ns
Diastolic BP, mmHg91.5 (8.6)88.9 (8.0)Ns
No (%) on antihypertensives5 (26.3)6 (30.0)Ns
No (%) with diabetes1 (5.3)1 (5.0)Ns
No (%) current smoker5 (26.3)6 (30.0)Ns
No (%) with witnessed sleep apnea4 (21)4 (20)Ns
No (%) with frequent snoring6 (32.6)8 (40)Ns
No (%) with daytime sleepiness7 (36.8)6 (30)Ns

Clinical characteristics, polysomnography findings, inflammatory markers, and echocardiography results from the 10-year cross-sectional examination are shown in Table 2. The surgery group displayed a weight loss of 27.2 kg (P < 0.001), while the obese group showed no significant weight change, which was in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Also, the surgery group had lower blood pressure, but there were no significant differences between groups with respect to antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and smoking. Patients treated with bariatric surgery showed substantially lower AHI and ODI as compared with the control group. Also, nearly two thirds of surgery patients had sleep disordered breathing that was only minimal (AHI < 5) or mild (AHI 5-15), whereas 60% of control subjects were found to have OSA that was severe (AHI > 30) (Figure 1). The surgery group had lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines hsCRP, TNF-α, and IL-6, and higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Surgically induced long-term weight loss was also associated with lower left ventricular mass, atrial area, pulmonary artery pressure and E/Ea ratio, and higher E/A ratio. However, left ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between study groups.

Table 2. Clinical characteristics, sleep apnea, inflammatory parameters and cardiac function in the study groups at 10-year follow-up (SD or %)
 Surgery group (n = 19)Control group (n = 20)P value
  1. PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure; E/A = ratio of early (E) to late (A) peak diastolic transmittal flow velocity; E/Ea = ratio of mitral early peak velocity (E) to mitral annulus early peak velocity (Ea).

Clinical characteristics   
 BMI, kg m−231.2 (5.3)42.0 (6.2)<0.001
 Systolic BP, mmHg130.4 (13.9)140.1 (14.7)0.042
 Diastolic BP, mmHg77.7 (6.0)83.9 (11.6)0.044
 No (%) on antihypertensives7 (36.8)13 (65)0.113
 No (%) with diabetes2 (10.5)6 (30.0)0.235
 No (%) current smoker6 (31.6)3 (15.0)0.273
Sleep apnea activity   
 AHI19.9 (21.5)37.8 (27.7)0.013
 ODI48.6 (10.8)21.3 (25.1)0.018
Inflammatory cytokines   
 hsCRP mg L−12.3 (3.0)7.2 (5.0)<0.001
 TNF- α pg mL−18.7 (1.0)14.7 (1.6)<0.001
 IL- 6 pg mL−11.0 (2.4)2.4 (1.0)<0.001
 IL- 10 pg mL−111.0 (4.9)5.3 (2.6)<0.001
Cardiac structure and function   
 Left ventricular mass (g)165 (22)207 (22)<0.001
 Left atrial area (cm2)21.8 (3.9)24.6 (4.7)0.051
 PASP (mmHg)25.3 (2.8)31.8 (4.3)<0.001
 E/A ratio1.24 (0.10)1.05 (0.20)0.006
 E/Ea ratio8.6 (2.2)10.7 (1.7)0.011
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)66.3 (5.2)64.0 (5.3)0.103
thumbnail image

Figure 1. Frequency of sleep disordered breathing according to conventional OSA categories in the two study groups at SOS-10-year follow-up. OSA: nonexisting (AHI < 5); mild (AHI 5-15); moderate (AHI 15-30); and severe (AHI > 30). [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

Download figure to PowerPoint

Findings following stratification of patients into subsets with and without clinically significant sleep apnea (AHI >20 and <20) are shown in Table 3 and Figures 2 and 3. Clinical variables were similar between subsets within study groups, apart from BMI, which was somewhat higher in strata with AHI > 20 as compared to those with AHI < 20, but this was not statistically significant (Table 3). On the other hand, proinflammatory markers hsCRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were, or tended to be, significantly lower and anti-inflammatory cytokine Il-10 higher in patient subsets with low levels of sleep apnea (Figure 2). Also, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, pulmonary artery pressure and E/Ea ratio were, or tended to be, significantly lower in patient strata with low OSA activity (Figure 3). In particular, sleep apnea influenced hsCRP, IL-6, left ventricular mass and left atrial size.

Table 3. Clinical characteristics of subsets within each study group after stratification by AHI at SOS-10-year follow-up (SD or %)
 Surgery group (n = 19)Control group (n = 20)
AHI < 20 (n = 15)AHI > 20 (n = 4)P valueAHI < 20 (n = 6)AHI > 20 (n = 14)P value
  1. BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure.

Age (yrs)59.5 (4.7)60.0 (3.9)0.83760.0 (7.5)61.1 (3.9)0.656
BMI (kg m−2)30.3 (4.7)34.9 (7.0)0.13239.4 (7.5)43.1 (5.4)0.225
Systolic BP, mmHg130.3 (13.9)130.8 (16.4)0.950136.7 (9.9)141.6 (16.5)0.511
Diastolic BP, mmHg77.1 (5.9)79.8 (6.8)0.45677.8 (6.3)86.5 (12.5)0.128
No (%) antihypertensives4 (26.7)3 (75)0.5404 (66.6)9 (64.3)0.962
No (%) with diabetes2 (13.3)0 (0)0.4702 (33.3)4 (28.6)0.870
No (%) current smoker5 (33.3)1 (25)0.8002 (33.3)1 (16.7)0.550
thumbnail image

Figure 2. Inflammatory markers in subsets of surgery and control groups stratified by AHI above or below 20. P values denote comparisons between subsets with high and low AHI within study groups.

Download figure to PowerPoint

thumbnail image

Figure 3. Echocardiography measures in subsets of surgery and control groups stratified by AHI above or below 20. P values denote comparisons between subsets with high and low AHI within study groups. PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Multiple regression analysis displaying the importance of sleep apnea activity and BMI for inflammatory markers and echocardiography measures are shown in Table 4. After including all patients and adjusting for the influence of BMI, AHI was independently and positively related to indices of inflammation, left ventricular mass, diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary artery pressure.

Table 4. Multiple regression analyses of inflammatory markers (upper panel) and selected echocardiography measures (lower panel) on AHI and BMI in pooled surgery and control groups
 hsCRPTNF alphaIL 6IL 10
 ββββ
AHI0.09***0.03*0.01**−0.06*
BMI0.31***0.25***0.06***−0.23*
Adj R2 (%)64534834
 LVMLA areaPASPE/Ea ratio
 ββββ
  • *

    P < 0.05;

  • **

    P < 0.01;

  • ***

    P < 0.001.

  • LVM = left ventricular mass; LA = left atrium; PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure; E/Ea = ratio of mitral early peak velocity (E) to mitral annulus early peak velocity (Ea).

AHI0.64***0.08**0.08*0.04*
BMI1.39***0.040.170.09
Adj R2 (%)51253129

Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

The present study has demonstrated that long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery is associated with a considerably lower degree of sleep apnea. Further, lower weight and less OSA activity were linked to lower inflammatory activity and better left ventricular function. Notably, residual OSA appeared to limit the potential effects of obesity surgery on inflammation and cardiac function.

Our findings are at large in accordance with those of a recent large meta- analysis (17) suggesting a substantial reduction of AHI in obese patients following bariatric surgery. However, in the present study, the prevalence of residual sleep apnea (mean AHI of more than 15 events per hour) following surgery was found to be lower than that reported in the meta-analysis, 37% as compared to 63%. A sleep apnea event intensity of 15 per hour or more may contribute to adverse medical sequelae, such as hypertension, heart disease, stroke and difficulty with weight control (29).

Albeit our study group was small, the findings still support a long-term beneficiary effect of bariatric surgery with respect to sleep disordered breathing in obese patients. In addition, our results add to previous data (30, 31) that weight loss-related alleviation of inflammation and cardiac dysfunction may, to some extent, relate to a concomitant reduction of sleep apnea.

Obesity, OSA, and inflammation

Adipose tissue and visceral fat depots in particular, produce a variety of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL- 6. IL-6 is also known to stimulate the hepatic production of CRP (4, 32), contributing further to the state of low-grade inflammation that characterizes obesity. Obstructive sleep apnea has also been proposed to be linked to systemic inflammation, but the nature of this relationship is confounded by the frequent coexistence of visceral adiposity (33).

In the present study AHI was positively related to various inflammatory markers independently of BMI, thus supporting a separate contribution of sleep apnea to systemic inflammation in obesity. This is in line with earlier studies (34, 35), which have demonstrated elevation of inflammatory cytokines in OSA, independent of the degree of obesity. A more recent study (7) has also shown a direct dose-response relationship between OSA and circulating levels of CRP, which was independent of age, BMI, and per cent of body fat. However, studies addressing CRP in OSA have provided inconsistent results which may relate to differences in study population, comorbid conditions and degree of OSA related hypoxia (36, 37).

The lower degree of systemic inflammation in patients with long-term weight loss observed in our study may, at least in part, have resulted from a concomitant reduction in OSA. This would further support a pathogenic role of OSA with respect to systemic inflammation in obesity.

Obesity, OSA, and cardiac function

Obesity is frequently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, and diastolic dysfunction (8, 38). In the present study, AHI was correlated with a higher left ventricular mass, higher pulmonary artery pressure and signs of impaired diastolic function, including larger atrial size and higher E/Ea ratio, and these relationships were independent of the degree of obesity. Hence, our results are in accordance with previous studies suggesting that OSA contributes to obesity-related left ventricular hypertrophy (8, 39) and the findings of Otto et al (38) and Arias et al. (40), who reported a greater degree of diastolic dysfunction in obese patients with OSA as compared to those without.

Treatment of obesity with ensuing long-term weight loss was associated with lower left ventricular mass, lower pulmonary artery pressure and enhanced diastolic function. Also, for both study groups, the subsets with low levels of sleep apnea displayed a more favorable echocardiographic profile. Thus, OSA that prevails despite previous obesity intervention might preclude the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiac structure and function. One contributing mechanism may be a sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system activity due to apnea-related hypoxemia that results in both systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction and thereby augmentation of blood pressure and ventricular afterload. Also, OSA-related inflammatory activity that persists despite weight loss might act to maintain adverse myocardial remodeling. Proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, have been proposed to impair cardiac function through mechanisms of myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis (9), although the pathophysiological significance of low-grade inflammation in this context remains unclear.

Strengths and limitations

The major merit and novelty of this study is the long-term follow-up data provided at 10 years after surgical intervention for obesity. Detailed classification of sleep, cardiac function and metabolic/inflammatory status using gold standard methods is provided. Both sleep and echocardiography data were analyzed by single interpreters to avoid inter-rater variability.

The study also has limitations, which may restrict the interpretability of the results. First, polysomnography, echocardiography, and inflammatory data had not been obtained at baseline and we could therefore not perform a direct comparison of treatment effects between the surgical and control groups. Second, the study was not randomized and subjects differed with respect to surgical motivation, which could indicate other and unforeseen differences between groups. Still, given a similar anthropometric profile and a comparable response to a validated sleep-questionnaire, it is highly likely that the two groups had similar levels of sleep apnea, diastolic dysfunction and inflammatory activity at baseline. Third, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, sedentary life style, caffeine and alcohol consumption, which all may have affected the inflammatory markers or cardiac function, could not be controlled for during the 10-year follow-up period and were not systematically addressed. Finally, the small number of subjects limits the statistical power in our study. However, the conclusion of our study is based on a recurrent pattern suggesting that OSA influences the degree of inflammatory activation and cardiac dysfunction in patients with different degrees of obesity. Our data therefore clearly suggests that the influence of sleep apnea should be considered in prospective outcome studies of bariatric surgery in obese patients.

Conclusion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

We report that long-term weight loss by bariatric surgery is associated with lower levels of OSA, reduced systemic inflammation and enhanced cardiac function. Our data suggests that persistent sleep apnea, in spite of weight loss, may limits the improvement of cardiac function and reduction of inflammatory activity. Assessment of persistent sleep apnea is likely to be warranted also after successful treatment of obesity.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References

Dr Dimitris Kardassis contributed to study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and manuscript preparation. Dr Jan Hedner contributed to data analysis, and manuscript preparation. Dr Lars Sjöström contributed to study design. Dr Ludger Grote contributed to data acquisition, data analysis, and manuscript preparation. Dr Kristjan Karason contributed to study design, data acquisition, data analysis, and manuscript preparation.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  • 1
    O'Keeffe T, Patterson EJ. Evidence supporting routine polysomnography before bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2004; 14: 23-26.
  • 2
    Hiestand DM, Britz P, Goldman M, et al. Prevalence of symptoms and risk of sleep apnea in the us population: results from the national sleep foundation sleep in America 2005 poll. Chest 2006; 130: 780-786.
  • 3
    Shahar E, Whitney CW, Redline S, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the sleep heart health study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 19-25.
  • 4
    Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, et al. Elevated c-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. JAMA 1999; 282: 2131-2135.
  • 5
    Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, et al. Elevation of plasma cytokines in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of sleep disturbance and obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 1313-1316.
  • 6
    Kataoka T, Enomoto F, Kim R, et al. The effect of surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the plasma tnf-alpha levels. Tohoku J Exp Med 2004; 204: 267-272.
  • 7
    Punjabi NM, Beamer BA. C-reactive protein is associated with sleep disordered breathing independent of adiposity. Sleep 2007; 30: 29-34.
  • 8
    Hedner J, Ejnell H, Caidahl K. Left ventricular hypertrophy independent of hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. J Hypertens 1990; 8: 941-946.
  • 9
    Prabhu SD. Cytokine-induced modulation of cardiac function. Circ Res 2004; 95: 1140-1153.
  • 10
    Krieger J, Grucker D, Sforza E, et al. Left ventricular ejection fraction in obstructive sleep apnea. Effects of long-term treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Chest 1991; 100: 917-921.
  • 11
    Peiser J, Ovnat A, Uwyyed K, et al. Cardiac arrhythmias during sleep in morbidly obese sleep-apneic patients before and after gastric bypass surgery. Clin Cardiol 1985; 8: 519-521.
  • 12
    Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, et al. Longitudinal study of moderate weight change and sleep-disordered breathing. JAMA 2000; 284: 3015-3021.
  • 13
    Guardiano SA, Scott JA, Ware JC, et al. The long-term results of gastric bypass on indexes of sleep apnea. Chest 2003; 124: 1615-1619.
  • 14
    Kopp HP, Kopp CW, Festa A, et al. Impact of weight loss on inflammatory proteins and their association with the insulin resistance syndrome in morbidly obese patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23: 1042-1047.
  • 15
    Karason K, Wallentin I, Larsson B, et al. Effects of obesity and weight loss on cardiac function and valvular performance. Obes Res. 1998; 6: 422-429.
  • 16
    Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2004; 292: 1724-1737.
  • 17
    Greenburg DL, Lettieri CJ, Eliasson AH. Effects of surgical weight loss on measures of obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2009; 122: 535-542.
  • 18
    Sjostrom L, Narbro K, Sjostrom CD, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 741-752.
  • 19
    Sjostrom L, Larsson B, Backman L, et al. Swedish obese subjects (sos). Recruitment for an intervention study and a selected description of the obese state. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1992; 16: 465-479.
  • 20
    Gislason T, Almqvist M, Eriksson G, et al. Prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome among Swedish men—an epidemiological study. J Clin Epidemiol 1988; 41: 571-576.
  • 21
    Marshall NS, Delling L, Grunstein RR, et al. Self-reported sleep apnoea and mortality in patients from the Swedish obese subjects study. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 1349-1354.
  • 22
    Rechtschaffen A, Kales A. A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Bethesda, MD.: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1968.
  • 23
    Iber C, American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The aasm manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2007.
  • 24
    Gooneratne NS, Richards KC, Joffe M, et al. Sleep disordered breathing with excessive daytime sleepiness is a risk factor for mortality in older adults. Sleep 2011; 34: 435-442.
  • 25
    Sredniawa B, Lenarczyk R, Kowalski O, et al. Sleep apnoea as a predictor of mid- and long-term outcome in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. Europace 2009; 11: 106-114.
  • 26
    Yoneyama K, Osada N, Shimozato T, et al. Relationship between sleep-disordered breathing level and acute onset time of congestive heart failure. Int Heart J 2008; 49: 471-480.
  • 27
    Byrd BF III, Finkbeiner W, Bouchard A, et al. Accuracy and reproducibility of clinically acquired two-dimensional echocardiographic mass measurements. Am Heart J 1989; 118: 133-137.
  • 28
    Starling MR, Crawford MH, Sorensen SG, et al. Comparative accuracy of apical biplane cross-sectional echocardiography and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography for estimating left ventricular size and performance. Circulation 1981; 63: 1075-1084.
  • 29
    Marshall NS, Wong KK, Liu PY, et al. Sleep apnea as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality: the Busselton health study. Sleep 2008; 31: 1079-1085.
  • 30
    Sjostrom CD, Peltonen M, Wedel H, et al. Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. Hypertension 2000; 36: 20-25.
  • 31
    Grunstein RR, Stenlof K, Hedner JA, et al. Two year reduction in sleep apnea symptoms and associated diabetes incidence after weight loss in severe obesity. Sleep 2007; 30: 703-710.
  • 32
    Bjorntorp P. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 1132-1143.
  • 33
    McNicholas WT, Bonsigore MR. Sleep apnoea as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: current evidence, basic mechanisms and research priorities. Eur Respir J 2007; 29: 156-178
  • 34
    Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis M, Papanicolaou DA, et al. Chronic insomnia is associated with a shift of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor secretion from nighttime to daytime. Metabolism 2002; 51: 887-892.
  • 35
    Mehra R, Storfer-Isser A, Kirchner HL, et al. Soluble interleukin 6 receptor: a novel marker of moderate to severe sleep-related breathing disorder. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 1725-1731.
  • 36
    Taheri S, Austin D, Lin L, et al. Correlates of serum c-reactive protein (crp)—no association with sleep duration or sleep disordered breathing. Sleep 2007; 30: 991-996.
  • 37
    Sharma SK, Mishra HK, Sharma H, et al. Obesity, and not obstructive sleep apnea, is responsible for increased serum hs-crp levels in patients with sleep-disordered breathing in Delhi. Sleep Med 2008; 9: 149-156.
  • 38
    Otto ME, Belohlavek M, Romero-Corral A, et al. Comparison of cardiac structural and functional changes in obese otherwise healthy adults with versus without obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 1298-1302.
  • 39
    Tanriverdi H, Evrengul H, Kaftan A, et al. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on aortic elastic parameters: relationship to left ventricular mass and function. Circ J 2006; 70: 737-743.
  • 40
    Arias MA, Garcia-Rio F, Alonso-Fernandez A, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects left ventricular diastolic function: effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in men. Circulation 2005; 112: 375-383.