• 1
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA 2010; 303: 242-249.
  • 2
    Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sorensen TI. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 2329-2337.
  • 3
    Tirosh A, Shai I, Afek A, et al. Adolescent BMI trajectory and risk of diabetes versus coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1315-1325.
  • 4
    Daniels SR. Complications of obesity in children and adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33 ( Suppl 1): S60-S65.
  • 5
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2008; Available at: URL: Accessed June 10, 2012.
  • 6
    Wilks DC, Besson H, Lindroos AK, Ekelund U. Objectively measured physical activity and obesity prevention in children, adolescents and adults: a systematic review of prospective studies. Obes Rev 2011; 12: e119-e129.
  • 7
    Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Jeffery AN, Voss LD, Henley W, Wilkin TJ. Fatness leads to inactivity, but inactivity does not lead to fatness: a longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 45). Arch Dis Child 2011; 96: 942-947.
  • 8
    Fisher A, Hill C, Webber L, Purslow L, Wardle J. MVPA is associated with lower weight gain in 8-10 year old children: a prospective study with 1 year follow-up. PLoS One 2011; 6: e18576.
  • 9
    Riddoch CJ, Leary SD, Ness AR, et al. Prospective associations between objective measures of physical activity and fat mass in 12-14 year old children: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). BMJ 2009; 339: b4544.
  • 10
    Basterfield L, Pearce MS, Adamson AJ, et al. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in English children. Am J Prev Med 2012; 42: 445-451.
  • 11
    Hao L, Naimen, D.Q. Introduction. In: Quantile Regression. Liao TF, editor. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications; 2007. p 1-6.
  • 12
    NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Appl Dev Psychol 2001; 22: 457-492.
  • 13
    Berkey CS, Colditz GA. Adiposity in adolescents: change in actual BMI works better than change in BMI z score for longitudinal studies. Ann Epidemiol 2007; 17: 44-50.
  • 14
    Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Masse LC, Tilert T, Mcdowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40: 181-188.
  • 15
    Treuth MS, Baggett CD, Pratt CA, et al. A longitudinal study of sedentary behavior and overweight in adolescent girls. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 1003-1008.
  • 16
    Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci 2008; 26: 1557-1565.
  • 17
    Trost SG, Loprinzi PD, Moore R, Pfeiffer KA. Comparison of accelerometer cut-points for predicting activity intensity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43: 1360-1368.
  • 18
    Carter PJ, Taylor BJ, Williams SM, Taylor RW. Longitudinal analysis of sleep in relation to BMI and body fat in children: the FLAME study. BMJ 2011; 342: d2712.
  • 19
    Wu XY, Ohinmaa A, Veugelers PJ. Diet quality, physical activity, body weight and health-related quality of life among grade 5 students in Canada. Public Health Nutr 2011; 4: 1-7.
  • 20
    Must A, Bandini LG, Tybor DJ, Phillips SM, Naumova EN, Dietz WH. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 1774-1781.
  • 21
    Wei Y, Pere A, Koenker R, He X. Quantile regression methods for reference growth charts. Stat Med 2006; 25: 1369-1382.
  • 22
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 1240-1243.
  • 23
    Crume TL, Bahr TM, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. Selective protection against extremes in childhood body size, abdominal fat deposition, and fat patterning in breastfed children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012; 166: 437-443.
  • 24
    Beyerlein A, Toschke AM, von Kries R. Risk factors for childhood overweight: shift of the mean body mass index and shift of the upper percentiles: results from a cross-sectional study. Int J Obesity 2010; 34: 642-648.
  • 25
    Beyerlein A, Toschke AM, von Kries R. Breastfeeding and childhood obesity: shift of the entire BMI distribution or only the upper parts? Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 2730-2733.
  • 26
    Beyerlein A, Toschke AM, Rosario AS, von Kries R. Risk factors for obesity: further evidence for stronger effects on overweight children and adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects. PLoS One 2011; 6: e15739.
  • 27
    Hill JO. Understanding and addressing the epidemic of obesity: an energy balance perspective. Endocr Rev 2006; 27: 750-761.
  • 28
    Bradfield JP, Taal HR, Timpson NJ, et al. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci. Nat Genet 2012; 44: 526-531.
  • 29
    Ruiz JR, Labayen I, Ortega FB, et al. Attenuation of the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on total and central body fat by physical activity in adolescents: the HELENA study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010; 164: 328-333.
  • 30
    Xi B, Wang C, Wu L, et al. Influence of physical inactivity on associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic predisposition to childhood obesity. Am J Epidemiol 2011; 173: 1256-1262.
  • 31
    van Sluijs EM, McMinn AM, Griffin SJ. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. BMJ 2007; 335: 703.
  • 32
    Fremeaux AE, Mallam KM, Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Voss LD, Wilkin TJ. The impact of school-time activity on total physical activity: the activitystat hypothesis (EarlyBird 46). Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35: 1277-1283.
  • 33
    Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Kriska AM, et al. Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 709-715.
  • 34
    Nader PR, Bradley RH, Houts RM, McRitchie SL, O'Brien M. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA 2008; 300: 295-305.
  • 35
    Craggs C, Corder K, van Sluijs EM, Griffin SJ. Determinants of change in physical activity in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2011; 40: 645-658.
  • 36
    Kozey SL, Staudenmayer JW, Troiano RP, Freedson PS. Comparison of the ActiGraph 7164 and the ActiGraph GT1M during self-paced locomotion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010; 42: 971-976.