• 1
    Shargo E, Glennon J, Gord E. Comparative aspects of lipogenesis in mammalian tissues. Metabolism 1971;20:54-62.
  • 2
    Angel A, Bray G. Synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol by liver, adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa from obese and control patients. Eur J Clin Invest 1979;9:355-362.
  • 3
    Donnelly KL, Smith CJ, Schwarzenberg SJ, et al. Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Invest 2005;115:1343-1351.
  • 4
    Cohen JC, Horton JD, Hobbs HH. Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights. Science 2011;332:1519-1523.
  • 5
    Diraison F, Yankah V, Letexier D, et al. Differences in the regulation of adipose tissue and liver lipogenesis by carbohydrates in humans. J Lipid Res 2003;44:846-853.
  • 6
    Letexier D, Pinteur C, Large V, Frering V, Beylot M. Comparison of the expression and activity of the lipogenic pathway in human and rat adipose tissue. J Lipid Res 2003;44:2127-2134.
  • 7
    Raghow R, Yellaturu C, Deng X, Park EA, Elam MB. SREBPs: the crossroads of physiological and pathological lipid homeostasis. Cell 2007;19:65-73.
  • 8
    Shimomura I, Shimano H, Horton JD, Goldstein JL, Brown MS. Differential expression of exons 1a and 1c in mRNAs for sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in human and mouse organs and cultured cells. J Clin Invest 1997;99:838-845.
  • 9
    Horton JD, Goldstein JL, Brown MS. SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. J Clin Invest 2002;109:1125-1131.
  • 10
    Yabe D, Brown MS, Goldstein JL. INSIG-2, a second endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds SCAP and blocks export of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:12753-12758.
  • 11
    Takaishi K, Duplomb L, Wang M-Y, Li J, Unger RH. Hepatic INSIG-1 or −2 overexpression reduces lipogenesis in obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats and in fasted/refed normal rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:7106-7111.
  • 12
    Yellaturu CR, Deng X, Park EA, Raghow R, Elam MB. Insulin enhances the biogenesis of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c by posttranscriptional down-regulation of INSIG-2A and its dissociation from SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP)-SREBP-1c complex. J Biol Chem 2009;284:31726-31734.
  • 13
    Boden G, She P, Mozzoli M, et al. Free fatty acids produce insulin resistance and activate the proinflammatory nuclear factor-κB pathway in rat liver. Diabetes 2005;54:3458-3465.
  • 14
    Boden G, Silviera M, Smith B, Cheung P, Homko C. Acute tissue injury caused by subcutaneous fat biopsies produces endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Clin Endocrinol 2010;95:349-352.
  • 15
    Foretz M, Guichard C, Ferre P, Foufelle F. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c is a major mediator of insulin action on the hepatic expression of glucokinase and lipogenesis-related genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:12737-12742.
  • 16
    Shimomura I, Bashmakov Y, Ikemoto S, et al. Insulin selectively increases SREBP-1c mRNA in the livers of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:13656-13661.
  • 17
    Foufelle F, Girard J, Ferre P. Regulation of lipogenic enzyme expression by glucose in liver and adipose tissue: a review of the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms. Adv Enzyme Regul 1996;36:199-226.
  • 18
    Chakravarty K, Leahy P, Becard D, et al. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mimics the negative effect of insulin on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene transcription. J Biol Chem 2001;276:34816-34823.
  • 19
    Postic C, Dentin R, Denechaud PD, Girard D. ChREBP, a transcriptional regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ann Rev Nutr 2007;27:179-192.
  • 20
    Lee A-H, Scapa EF, Cohen DE, Glimcher LH. Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription factor XBP1. Science 2008;320:1492-1496.
  • 21
    Azzoult-Marniche D, Becard D, Guichard C, et al. Insulin effects on sterol regulatory-element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) transcriptional activity in rat hepatocytes. Biochem J 2000;350:389-393.
  • 22
    Yellaturu CR, Deng X, Cagen LM, et al. Post-translational processing of SREBP-1 in rat hepatocytes is regulated by insulin and cAMP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;332:174-180.
  • 23
    Xiao-Ying D, Sheng-Qui T. Insulin-induced gene: a new regulator in lipid metabolism. Peptides 2012;31:2145-2150.
  • 24
    Yabe D, Komura R, Liang G, Goldstein JL, Brown MS. Liver-specific mRNA for INSIG-2 down-regulated by insulin: implications for fatty acid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:3155-3160.
  • 25
    Engelking LJ, Kuriyama H, Hammer RE, et al. Overexpression of INSIG-1 in the livers of transgenic mice inhibits SREBP processing and reduces insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. J Clin Invest 2004;113:1168-1175.
  • 26
    Yang T, Espenshade PJ, Wright WE, et al. Crucial step in cholesterol homeostasis: sterols promote binding of SCAP to INSIG-1, a membrane protein that facilitates retention of SREBPs in ER. Cell 2002;110:489-500.
  • 27
    Lee JN, Ye J. Proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein induced by cellular stress through depletion of INSIG-1. J Biol Chem 2004;279:45257-45265.
  • 28
    Li J, Yu X, Pan W, Unger RH. Gene expression profile of rat adipose tissue at the onset of high-fat-diet obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002;282:E1334-E1341.
  • 29
    Kammoun HL, Chabanon H, Hainault I, et al. GRP78 expression inhibits insulin and ER stress-induced SREBP-1c activation and reduces hepatic steatosis in mice. J Clin Invest 2009;119:1201-1215.
  • 30
    Westruck GH, Lentz SR, Dayal S, et al. Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress causes dysregulation of the cholesterol and triglyceride biosynthetic pathways. J Clin Invest 2001;107:1263-1273.
  • 31
    Ji C, Chan C, Kaplowitz N. Predominant role of sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP) lipogenic pathways in ehpatic steatosis in the murine intragasric ethanol feeding model. J Hepatol 2006;45:717-724.
  • 32
    Ye J, Rawson RB, Komuro R, et al. ER stress induces cleavage of membrane-bound ATF6 by the same proteases that process SREBPs. Mol Cell 2000;6:1355-1364.
  • 33
    Bobrovinikova-Marjon E, Hatzivassiliou G, Grigoriadou C, et al. PERK-dependent regulation of lipogenesis during mouse mammary gland development and adipocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:16314-16319.
  • 34
    Boden G, Song W, Duan X, et al. Infusion of glucose and lipids at physiological rates causes acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat liver. Obesity 2011;19:1366-1372.
  • 35
    Deng X, Yellaturu C, Cagen L, et al. Expression of the rat sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene in response to insulin is mediated by increase transactivating capacity of specificity protein (Sp1). J Biol Chem 2002;282:17517-17529.