• 1
    Cornier MA, Despres JP, Davis N, et al. Assessing Adiposity: a Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation 2011;124:1996-2019.
  • 2
    Bays HE, Gonzalez-Campoy JM, Bray GA, et al. Pathogenic potential of adipose tissue and metabolic consequences of adipocyte hypertrophy and increased visceral adiposity. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2008;6:343-68.
  • 3
    Tan CY, Vidal-Puig A. Adipose tissue expandability: the metabolic problems of obesity may arise from the inability to become more obese. Biochem Soc Trans 2008;36:935-40.
  • 4
    Fox CS, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, et al. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2007;116:39-48.
  • 5
    Oka R, Miura K, Sakurai M, et al. Impacts of visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue on metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Japanese. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:153-60.
  • 6
    Liu J, Fox CS, Hickson DA, et al. Impact of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk factors: the Jackson Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:5419-26.
  • 7
    Pou KM, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, et al. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes are cross-sectionally related to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2007;116:1234-41.
  • 8
    Ducluzeau PH, Manchec-Poilblanc P, Roullier V, et al. Distribution of abdominal adipose tissue as a predictor of hepatic steatosis assessed by MRI. Clin Radiol 2010;65:695-700.
  • 9
    Wildman RP, Janssen I, Khan UI, et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:719-26.
  • 10
    Bays HE, Fox KM, Grandy S. Anthropometric measurements and diabetes mellitus: clues to the “pathogenic” and “protective” potential of adipose tissue. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2010;8:307-15.
  • 11
    Porter SA, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U, et al. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: a protective fat depot? Diabetes Care 2009;32:1068-75.
  • 12
    McLaughlin T, Lamendola C, Liu A, et al. Preferential fat deposition in subcutaneous versus visceral depots is associated with insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:E1756-60.
  • 13
    Katzmarzyk PT, Bray GA, Greenway FL, et al. Racial differences in abdominal depot-specific adiposity in white and African American adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:7-15.
  • 14
    Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults—United States, 2006–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009;58:740-744.
  • 15
    Victor RG, Haley RW, Willett DL, et al. The Dallas Heart Study: a population-based probability sample for the multidisciplinary study of ethnic differences in cardiovascular health. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1473-80.
  • 16
    Grundy SM, Becker D, Clark LT, et al. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143-421.
  • 17
    Levey AS, Adler S, Caggiula AW, et al. Effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of advanced renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Am J Kidney Dis 1996;27:652-63.
  • 18
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF and Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985;28:412-9.
  • 19
    Tikuisis P, Meunier P and Jubenville CE. Human body surface area: measurement and prediction using three dimensional body scans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001;85:264-71.
  • 20
    Abate N, Garg A, Coleman R, Grundy SM and Peshock RM. Prediction of total subcutaneous abdominal, intraperitoneal, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue masses in men by a single axial magnetic resonance imaging slice. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:403-408.
  • 21
    Ross R, Leger L, Morris D, et al. Quantification of adipose tissue by MRI: relationship with anthropometric variables. J Appl Physiol 1992;72:787-795.
  • 22
    Armellini F, Zamboni M, Perdichizzi G, et al. Computed tomography visceral adipose tissue volume measurements of Italians. Predictive equations. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:290-294.
  • 23
    Szczepaniak LS, Babcock EE, Schick F, et al. Measurement of intracellular triglyceride stores by H spectroscopy: validation in vivo. Am J Physiol 1999;276:E977-E989.
  • 24
    Vega GL, Adams-Huet B, Peshock R, et al. Influence of body fat content and distribution on variation in metabolic risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:4459-4466.
  • 25
    Abdullah SM, Khera A, Leonard D, et al. Sex differences in the association between leptin and CRP: results from the Dallas Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 2007;195:404-410.
  • 26
    Turer AT, Khera A, Ayers CR, et al. Adipose tissue mass and location affect circulating adiponectin levels. Diabetologia 2011;54:2515-2524.
  • 27
    Khera A, Vega GL, Das SR, et al. Sex differences in the relationship between C-reactive protein and body fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:3251-3258.
  • 28
    Jeyarajah EJ, Cromwell WC, Otvos JD. Lipoprotein particle analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Clin Lab Med 2006;26:847-870.
  • 29
    Jain T, Peshock R, McGuire DK, et al. African Americans and Caucasians have a similar prevalence of coronary calcium in the Dallas Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1011-1017.
  • 30
    Rohatgi A, Ayers CR, Khera A, et al. The association between peptidoglycan recognition protein-1 and coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis: Observations from the Dallas Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 2009;203:569-575.
  • 31
    Long J. Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Sage: Thousand Oaks, California, 1997, 187-203.
  • 32
    Goedecke JH, Levitt NS, Lambert EV, et al. Differential effects of abdominal adipose tissue distribution on insulin sensitivity in black and white South African women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009;17:1506-1512.
  • 33
    Garg A. Regional adiposity and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:4206-4210.
  • 34
    Jensen MD. Is visceral fat involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome? Human model. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14 Suppl 1:20S-24S.
  • 35
    Goodpaster BH, Krishnaswami S, Harris TB, et al. Obesity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome in older men and women. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:777-783.
  • 36
    Khashper A, Gaspar T, Azencot M, et al. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue and coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic diabetics. Int J Cardiol. 2011 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 37
    Blaha MJ, Rivera JJ, Budoff MJ, et al. Association between obesity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >/=2 mg/L, and subclinical atherosclerosis: implications of JUPITER from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011;31:1430-1438.
  • 38
    Kronmal RA, McClelland RL, Detrano R, et al. Risk factors for the progression of coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation 2007;115:2722-2730.
  • 39
    Rexrode KM, Buring JE, Manson JE. Abdominal and total adiposity and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1047-1056.
  • 40
    Gelber RP, Gaziano JM, Orav EJ, et al. Measures of obesity and cardiovascular risk among men and women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52:605-615.