• 1
    Teh WT, Teede HJ, Paul E, Harrison CL, Wallace EM, Allan C. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for the application of screening guidelines. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ( 2011; 51: 2630.
  • 2
    Geulinckx I, Devlieger R, Beckers K, Vansant G. Maternal obesity: pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain and nutrition. Obes Rev 2008; 9: 140150.
  • 3
    Amorim AR, Rossner S, Neovius M, Lourenco PM, Linne Y. Does excess pregnancy weight gain constitute a major risk for increasing long-term BMI? Obesity 2007; 15: 12781286.
  • 4
    Park S, Sappenfield W, Bish C, Salihu H, Goodman D, Bensyl D. Assessment of the Institute of Medicine Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy: Florida, 2004–2007. Matern Child Health J 2011; 15: 289301.
  • 5
    Phelan S. Pregnancy: a “teachable moment” for weight control and obesity prevention. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 202: 135.e1135.e8.
  • 6
    Arslan Özkan İ, Mete S. Pregnancy planning and antenatal health behaviour: findings from one maternity unit in Turkey. Midwifery 2010; 26: 338347.
  • 7
    Edvardsson K, Ivarsson A, Eurenius E, et al. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 936.
  • 8
    Oteng-Ntim E, Varma R, Croker H, Poston L, Doyle P. Lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese pregnant women to improve pregnancy outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med 2012; 10: 47.
  • 9
    Luoto R, Kinnunen TI, Aittasalo M, et al. Primary prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus and large-for-gestational-age newborns by lifestyle counseling: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med 2011; 8: e1001036.
  • 10
    Taggart NR, Holliday RM, Billewicz WZ, Hytten FE, Thomson AM. Changes in skinfolds during pregnancy. Br J Nutr 1967; 21: 439451.
  • 11
    Rasmussen K, Yaktine AL (Eds). Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: National Academic Press; 2009.
  • 12
    Hedderson MM, Gunderson EP, Ferrara A. Gestational weight gain and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115: 597604.
  • 13
    Lombard C, Deeks A, Jolley D, Ball K, Teede H. A low intensity, community based lifestyle programme to prevent weight gain in women with young children: cluster randomised controlled trial BMJ 2010; 341: c3215.
  • 14
    Teede HJ, Harrison CL, Teh WT, Paul E, Allan CA. Gestational diabetes: development of an early risk prediction tool to facilitate opportunities for prevention. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2011; 51: 499504.
  • 15
    Broman M, Carlsson O, Friberg H, Wieslander A, Godaly G. Phosphate-containing dialysis solution prevents hypophosphatemia during continuous renal replacement therapy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2011; 55: 3945.
  • 16
    WHO/IASO/IOTF. The Asia-Pacific perspective: re-defining obesity and its treatment. Avaiable from: Health Communications Australia, Melbourne; 2000.
  • 17
    Dietary Guidelines For Australian Adults. National Health and Medical Research Council; 2003. [updated (Last updated 2010)]. Available from:
  • 18
    Brockington IF. Menstrual psychosis: a bipolar disorder with a link to the hypothalamus. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2011; 13: 193197.
  • 19
    Harrison CL, Thompson RG, Teede HJ, Lombard CB. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011; 8.
  • 20
    Harrison C, Lombard CB, Teede HJ. Understanding health behaviours in a cohort of pregnant women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: an observational study. BJOG 2012; 119: 731738.
  • 21
    Sidman C, Corbin CB, Le Masurier G. Promoting physical activity among sedentary women using pedometers. Res Q Exerc Sport 2004; 75: 122129.
  • 22
    Craig C, Marshall AL, Sja–Stra–M M, et al. International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35: 13811395.
  • 23
    Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)—short and long forms. The IPAQ Group, 2005. Available from: [Accessed 26/5/2010].
  • 24
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Transtheoretical therapy: toward a more integrative model of change. Pscychother: Theory Res Pract 1982; 19: 276288.
  • 25
    Hoffmann L, Nolan C, Wilson JD, Oats JJN, Simmons D. Gestational diabetes mellitus: management guidelines. MJA 1998; 169: 9397.
  • 26
    Metzger BE, Gabbe SG, Persson B, et al. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 676682.
  • 27
    Adamson L, Brown W, Byles J, et al. Women's weight: findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Australian Government Department of Health & Ageing; June 2007. Available from:
  • 28
    Althuizen E, van Poppel MNM, Seidell JC, van der Wijden C, van Mechelen W. Design of the New Life(style) study: a randomised controlled trial to optimise maternal weight development during pregnancy [ISRCTN85313483]. BMC Public Health 2006; 6.
  • 29
    Abrams B, Selvin S. Maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 86: 163169.
  • 30
    Cedergren MI. Optimal gestational weight gain for body mass index categories. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 759764.
  • 31
    Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-Wallis C, et al. Associations of gestational weight gain with maternal body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure measured 16 years after pregnancy: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2011; 66: 599600.
  • 32
    Chmitorz A, von Kries R, Rasmussen KM, Nehring I, Ensenauer R. Do trimester-specific cutoffs predict whether women ultimately stay within the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council guidelines for gestational weight gain? Findings of a retrospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95: 14321437.
  • 33
    Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-Wallis C, et al. Associations of gestational weight gain with maternal body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure measured 16 years after pregnancy: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2011; 66: 599610.
  • 34
    Jeffries K. SA, Walker SP, Hiscock R, Permezel M. Reducing excessive weight gain in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. MJA 2009; 191: 429433.
  • 35
    Greaves CJ, Sheppard KE, Abraham C, et al. Intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions. BMC Public Health 2011; 11.
  • 36
    Wolff S, Legarth J, Vangsgaard K, Toubro S, Astrup A. A randomized trial of the effects of dietary counseling on gestational weight gain and glucose metabolism in obese pregnant women. Int J Obes 2008; 32: 495501.
  • 37
    Quinlivan JA, Lam LT, Fisher J. A randomised trial of a four-step multidisciplinary approach to the antenatal care of obese pregnant women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 51: 141146.
  • 38
    Wing RR, Tate DF, Gorin AA, Raynor HA, Fava JL. A self-regulation program for maintenance of weight loss. NEJM 2006; 355: 15631571.
  • 39
    Phelan S, Phipps MG, Abrams B, Darroch F, Schaffner A, Wing RR. Practitioner advice and gestational weight gain. J Womens Health 2011; 20: 585591.