• 1
    Stefan N, Kantartzis K, Machann J, et al. Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1609-1616.
  • 2
    Landsberg L. Body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk: a tale of 2 sites. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1607-1608.
  • 3
    Goodpaster BH, Krishnaswami S, Harris TB, et al. Obesity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome in older men and women. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:777-783.
  • 4
    Peiris AN, Sothmann MS, Hennes MI, et al. Relative contribution of obesity and body fat distribution to alterations in glucose insulin homeostasis: predictive values of selected indices in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:758-764.
  • 5
    Desprès SP, Nadeau A, Tremblay A, et al. Role of deep abdominal fat in the association between regional adipose tissue distribution and glucose tolerance in obese women. Diabetes 1989;38:304-309.
  • 6
    Rader DJ. Effect of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and intra-abdominal adiposity on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2007: 120 (Suppl 1):512-518.
  • 7
    Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease (syndrome X): an expanded definition. Annu Rev Med 1993;44:121-131.
  • 8
    DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance, a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 1991;14:173-194.
  • 9
    Haffner SM, Valdez RA, Hazuda HP, Mitchell BD, Morales PA, Stern MP. Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Diabetes 1992;41:715-722.
  • 10
    Janssen I, Powell LH, Kazlauskaite R, Dugan SA. Testosterone and visceral fat in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) fat patterning study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:604-610.
  • 11
    Ivandić A, Prpić-Krizevac I, Bozić D, et al. Insulin resistance and androgens in healthy women with different body fat distributions. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002;114:321-326.
  • 12
    Sutton-Tyrrell K, Wildman RP, Matthews KA, et al. Sex-hormone-binding globulin and the free androgen index are related to cardiovascular risk factors in multiethnic premenopausal and perimenopausal women enrolled in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Circulation 2005;111:1242-1249.
  • 13
    Sherif K, Kushner H, Falkner BE. Sex hormone-binding globulin and insulin resistance in African-American women. Metabolism 1998;47:70-74.
  • 14
    Pedersen SB, B⊘rglum JD, Brixen K, Richelsen B. Relationship between sex hormones, body composition and metabolic risk parameters in premenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol 1995;133:200-206.
  • 15
    Tchernof A, Toth MJ, Poehlman ET. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels in middle-aged premenopausal women. Associations with visceral obesity and metabolic profile. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1875-1881.
  • 16
    Mesch VR, Siseles NO, Maidana PN, et al. Androgens in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in the menopausal transition. Climacteric 2008;11:509-517.
  • 17
    Phillips GB, Tianyi J, Heymsfield SB. Does insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, or a sex hormone alteration underlie the metabolic syndrome? Studies in women. Metabolism 2008;57:838-844.
  • 18
    Anonymous. Lipid Research Clinics Program: Manual of Laboratory Operations, Vol. 1: Lipid and Lipoprotein Analysis. Government Printing Office, DHEW: Washington, DC; 1974, pp 75-628.
  • 19
    Warnick GR, Albers JJ. A comprehensive evaluation of the heparin-manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res 1978;19:65-76.
  • 20
    Gidez LI, Miller GJ, Burstein M, Slagle S, Eder HA. Separation and quantitation of subclasses of human plasma high density lipoproteins by a simple precipitation procedure. J Lipid Res 1982;23:1206-1223.
  • 21
    McGowan MW, Artiss JD, Strandbergh DR, Zak B. A peroxidase-coupled method for the colorimetric determination of serum triglycerides. Clin Chem 1983;29:538-542.
  • 22
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.
  • 23
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Report of the expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. National Cholesterol Program. Arch Intern Med 1998;145:36-39.
  • 24
    Haffner SM, Miettinen H, Stern MP. The homeostasis model in the San Antonio Heart Study. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1087-1092.
  • 25
    Blight LF, Judd SJ, White GH. Relative diagnostic value of serum non-SHBG-bound testosterone, free androgen index and free testosterone in the assessment of mild to moderate hirsutism. Ann Clin Biochem 1989;26 ( Part 4):311-316.
  • 26
    Vermeulen A, Verdonck L, Kaufman JM. A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3666-3672.
  • 27
    Després JP, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ, Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Bouchard C. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma, lipoprotein, and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis 1990;10:497-511.
  • 28
    Sypniewska O. Markers of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Adv Med Sci 2007;52:247-256.
  • 29
    Preis SR, Massaso JM, Robbins SJ, et al. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and insulin resistance in the Framingham Heart Study. Obesity 2010;18:2191-2198.
  • 30
    Alvehus M, Burén J, Sjöström M, Goedecke J, Olsson T. The human visceral adipose fat depot has a unique inflammatory profile. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:879-883.
  • 31
    Anderson DE. Sex hormone binding globulin. Clin Endocrinol 1974;3:69-96.
  • 32
    Pugeat M, Moulin P, Cousin P, et al. Interrelation between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1995;53:567-572.
  • 33
    Nestler JE, Powers LP, Matt DW, et al. A direct effect of hyperinsulinemia on serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels in obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;72:83-89.
  • 34
    Berman DM, Rodrigues lM, Nicklas BJ, Ryan AS, Dewnnis KE, Goldbay AP. Racial disparities in metabolism, central obesity and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:97-103.
  • 35
    Quinkler TM. Testosterone and blood pressure regulation. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008;31:71-79.
  • 36
    Haffner SM, Katz MS, Stern MP, Dunn JF. Association of decreased sex hormone binding globulin and cardiovascular risk factors. Arteriosclerosis 1989;9:136-143.
  • 37
    Ryan AS, Nicklas BJ, Berman DM. Racial differences in insulin resistance and mid-thigh fat deposition in postmenopausal women. Obes Res 2002;10:336-344.
  • 38
    Ding EL, Song Y, Malik VS, Liu S. Sex differences of endogenous sex hormones and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2006;295:1288-1299.
  • 39
    Ahumada Hemer H, Valles de Bourges V, Juarez Ayala J, Brito G, Díaz-Sánchez V, Garza-Flores J. Variations in serum lipids and lipoproteins throughout the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 1985;44:80-84.
  • 40
    Wierman ME, Basson R, Davis SR, et al. Androgen therapy in women: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:3697-3710.