• 1
    Freak-Poli R, Wolfe R, Backholer K, et al. Impact of a pedometer-based workplace health program on cardiovascular and diabetes risk profile. Prev Med 2011;53:162-171.
  • 2
    Freak-Poli R, Wolfe R, Peeters A. Risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in a working population with sedentary occupations. J Occup Environ Med 2010;52:1132-1137.
  • 3
    Marshall AL. Challenges and opportunities for promoting physical activity in the workplace. J Sci Med Sport 2004;7(1 Suppl):60-66.
  • 4
    World Health Organization and World Economic Forum. Preventing noncommunicable diseases in the workplace through diet and physical activity: WHO/world economic forum report of a joint event. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
  • 5
    Freak-Poli R, Cumpston M, Peeters A, et al. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity (Protocol). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;7:CD009209.
  • 6
    Gilson ND, Puig-Ribera A, McKenna J, et al. Do walking strategies to increase physical activity reduce reported sitting in workplaces: a randomized control trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2009;6:43.
  • 7
    Kwak L, Kremers SP, Visscher TL, et al. Behavioral and cognitive effects of a worksite-based weight gain prevention program: the NHF-NRG in balance-project. J Occup Environ Med 2009;51:1437-1446.
  • 8
    Morgan PJ, Collins CE, Plotnikoff RC, et al. Efficacy of a workplace-based weight loss program for overweight male shift workers: the Workplace POWER (Preventing Obesity Without Eating like a Rabbit) randomized controlled trial. Prevent Med 2011;52:317-325.
  • 9
    Musto A, Jacobs K, Nash M, et al. The effects of an incremental approach to 10,000 steps/day on metabolic syndrome components in sedentary overweight women. J Phys Act Health 2010;7:737-745.
  • 10
    Speck BJ, Looney SW. Effects of a minimal intervention to increase physical activity in women: daily activity records. Nurs Res 2001;50:374-378.
  • 11
    Touger-Decker R, Denmark R, Bruno M, et al. Workplace weight loss program; comparing live and internet methods. J Occup Environ Med 2010;52:1112-1118.
  • 12
    Kwak L, Kremers SP, Candel MJ, et al. Changes in skinfold thickness and waist circumference after 12 and 24 months resulting from the NHF-NRG in balance-project. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2010;7:26.
  • 13
    Rush EC, Cumin MB, Migriauli L, et al. One year sustainability of risk factor change from a 9-week workplace intervention. J Environ Public Health 2009;2009:569104.
  • 14
    Thomas L, Williams M. Promoting physical activity in the workplace: using pedometers to increase daily activity levels. Health Promot J Austr 2006;17:97-102.
  • 15
    The Global Corporate Challenge (GCC). The Global Corporate Challenge. 2012 [cited 2012 2/8/2012]; Available at:
  • 16
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2002). The WHO STEPwise approach. Surveillence of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases: Step 1, 2 & 3. Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion. Geneva, WHO.
  • 17
    Dunstan DW, Zimmet PZ, Welborn TA, et al. The Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study (AusDiab)—methods and response rates. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;57:119-129.
  • 18
    Giles GG, English DR. The Melbourne collaborative cohort study. IARC Sci Publ 2002;156:69-70.
  • 19
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). National health survey: summary of results, Australia, 2004-05 (cat. no. 4364.0). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2008.
  • 20
    Ball K, Brown W, Crawford D. Who does not gain weight? Prevalence and predictors of weight maintenance in young women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:1570-1578.
  • 21
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2002). The WHO mini-STEP instrument. Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion. Geneva, WHO.
  • 22
    Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. National preventive and community medicine committee. guidelines for preventive activities in general practice, 7th ed. Prepared by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners ‘Red Book’ Taskforce: Harris M BJ, Del Mar C, Fasher M, Foreman L, Furler J, Johnson C, Joyner B, Litt J, Mazza D, Smith J, Tomlins R, Bailey L, London J, Snowdon T, in conjunction with The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Publications Unit., editor. Victoria: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners; 2009.
  • 23
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Australia's health 2008. Cat. no. AUS 99. Canberra: AIHW2008.
  • 24
    The SF-12®: an even shorter health survey. Available at: [Accessed April 13, 2013].
  • 25
    Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute on behalf of the Australian State and Territory Governments as part of the COAG initiative to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK). Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government; 2008. Available at: [Acces-sed April 13, 2013].
  • 26
    National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance. Guidelines for the assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease risk. National Heart Foundation of Australia; 2009; Available at:
  • 27
    Safar ME, Lange C, Blacher J, et al. Mean and yearly changes in blood pressure with age in the metabolic syndrome: the DESIR study. Hypertens Res 2011;34:91-97.
  • 28
    Ammerman AS, Lindquist CH, Lohr KN, et al. The efficacy of behavioral interventions to modify dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake: a review of the evidence. Prev Med 2002;35:25-41.
  • 29
    Pomerleau J, Lock K, Knai C, et al. Interventions designed to increase adult fruit and vegetable intake can be effective: a systematic review of the literature. J Nutr 2005;135:2486-2495.
  • 30
    Ekelund U, Besson H, Luan J, et al. Physical activity and gain in abdominal adiposity and body weight: prospective cohort study in 288,498 men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:826-835.
  • 31
    Brown WJ, Williams L, Ford JH, et al. Identifying the energy gap: magnitude and determinants of 5-year weight gain in midage women. Obes Res 2005;13:1431-1441.
  • 32
    Travier N, Agudo A, May AM, et al. Longitudinal changes in weight in relation to smoking cessation in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Prev Med 2011;54:183--192. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.09.003.
  • 33
    Truong KD, Sturm R. Weight gain trends across sociodemographic groups in the United States. Am J Public Health 2005;95:1602-1606.
  • 34
    Kahn HS, Cheng YJ. Longitudinal changes in BMI and in an index estimating excess lipids among white and black adults in the United States. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:136-143.
  • 35
    Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Fernandez-Garcia J, Sanchez-Izquierdo F, et al. Life-style factors associated with changes in serum lipids in a follow-up study of cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Epidemiol 1998;14:525-533.
  • 36
    Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 2005;294:2455-2464.
  • 37
    Dasgupta K, Joseph L, Pilote L, et al. Daily steps are low year-round and dip lower in fall/winter: findings from a longitudinal diabetes cohort. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2010;9:81.
  • 38
    Farag NH, Moore WE, Thompson DE, et al. Evaluation of a community-based participatory physical activity promotion project: effect on cardiovascular disease risk profiles of school employees. BMC Public Health 2010;10:313.
  • 39
    Groeneveld IF, Proper KI, van der Beek AJ, et al. Factors associated with non-participation and drop-out in a lifestyle intervention for workers with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2009;6:80.
  • 40
    Little R, Rubin D. Statistical analysis with missing data. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2002.