• Open Access

Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum

Authors

  • Jessica Schueler,

    1. Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA
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    • Funding: The research was supported by Award Number P20RR16474 from the National Center for Research Resources. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Center for Research Resources for the National Institutes of Health.

      Disclosure: This publication was made possible by NIH Grant #P20RR016474 from the INBRE Program of the National Center for Research Resources. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NIH. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  • Brenda Alexander,

    1. Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA
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  • Ann Marie Hart,

    1. Faye Whitney School of Nursing, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA
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  • Kathleen Austin,

    1. Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA
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  • D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA
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Correspondence: D. Enette Larson-Meyer (enette@uwyo.edu)

Abstract

Objective: The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with maternal and infant anthropometrics.

Design and Methods: Thirteen postpartum women (mean ± SD: 25.6 ± 4.5 years, 72.0 ± 11.9 kg) provided fore- and hindmilk samples 4-5 weeks after delivery and underwent measurements of body weight and composition by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. GLP-1, PYY, and leptin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay, and milk fat content was determined by creamatocrit.

Results: Concentration of GLP-1 and content of milk fat was higher in hindmilk than foremilk (P ≤ 0.05). PYY and leptin concentrations did not change between fore- and hindmilk. Both leptin concentration and milk fat content were correlated with indices of maternal adiposity, including body mass index (r = 0.65-0.85, P < 0.02), and fat mass (r = 0.65-0.84, P < 0.02). Hindmilk GLP-1 was correlated with infant weight gain from birth to 6 months (r = −0.67, P = 0.034).

Conclusion: The presence of appetite hormones in breast milk may be important in infant appetite and growth regulation.

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