Funding: The research was supported by Award Number P20RR16474 from the National Center for Research Resources. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Center for Research Resources for the National Institutes of Health.
Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum
Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013
Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society
Volume 21, Issue 7, pages 1451–1458, July 2013
How to Cite
Schueler, J., Alexander, B., Hart, A. M., Austin, K. and Enette Larson-Meyer, D. (2013), Presence and dynamics of leptin, GLP-1, and PYY in human breast milk at early postpartum. Obesity, 21: 1451–1458. doi: 10.1002/oby.20345
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 14 FEB 2013 07:18AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Received: 18 JUN 2012
- National Center for Research Resources. Grant Number: P20RR16474
- National Center for Research Resources for the National Institutes of Health.
Objective: The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with maternal and infant anthropometrics.
Design and Methods: Thirteen postpartum women (mean ± SD: 25.6 ± 4.5 years, 72.0 ± 11.9 kg) provided fore- and hindmilk samples 4-5 weeks after delivery and underwent measurements of body weight and composition by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. GLP-1, PYY, and leptin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay, and milk fat content was determined by creamatocrit.
Results: Concentration of GLP-1 and content of milk fat was higher in hindmilk than foremilk (P ≤ 0.05). PYY and leptin concentrations did not change between fore- and hindmilk. Both leptin concentration and milk fat content were correlated with indices of maternal adiposity, including body mass index (r = 0.65-0.85, P < 0.02), and fat mass (r = 0.65-0.84, P < 0.02). Hindmilk GLP-1 was correlated with infant weight gain from birth to 6 months (r = −0.67, P = 0.034).
Conclusion: The presence of appetite hormones in breast milk may be important in infant appetite and growth regulation.