• 1
    Guelinckx I, Beckers K, Vansant G, Devlieger R. Construction of weight gain charts in a low risk obstetric Belgian population. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2010;69:5761.
  • 2
    Kiel DW, Dodson EA, Artal R, Boehmer TK, Leet TL. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in obese women: how much is enough?Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:752758.
  • 3
    Stuebe AM, Forman MR, Michiels KB. Maternal-recalled gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index and obesity in the daughter. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:743752.
  • 4
    Chmitorz A, von Kries R, Rasmussen KM, Nehring I, Ensenauer R. Do trimester-specific cutoffs predict whether women ultimately stay within the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council guidelines for gestational weight gain? Findings of a retrospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;May 2 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 5
    Kanagalingam MG, Forouhi NG, Greer IA, Sattar N. Changes in booking body mass index over a decade: retrospective analysis from a Glasgow Maternity Hospital. BJOG 2005;112:14311433.
  • 6
    Guelinckx I, Devlieger R, Beckers K, Vansant G. Maternal obesity: pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain and nutrition. Obes Rev 2008;9:140150.
  • 7
    Institute of Medicine (IOM). Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Washington, DC: National Research Council, The National Academies Press; 2009.
  • 8
    Amorim AR, Rössner S, Neovius M, Lourenço PM, Linné Y. Does excess pregnancy weight gain constitute a major risk for increasing long-term BMI?Obesity 2007;15:12781286.
  • 9
    Jang HC. Gestational diabetes in Korea: incidence and risk factors of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:17.
  • 10
    Barker DJ, Winter PD, Osmond C, Margetts B, Simmonds SJ. Weight in infancy and death from ischemic heart disease. Lancet 1989;2:577580.
  • 11
    National Research Council, Institute of Medicine (IOM). Influence of pregnancy weight on maternal and child health. Workshop report. Committee on the Impact of Pregnancy Weight on Maternal and Child Health. Board on Children, Youth and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academics Press; 2007.
  • 12
    Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R, Vohr BR. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 2005;115:e290e296.
  • 13
    Oken E, Gillman MW. Fetal origins of obesity. Obes Res 2003;11:496506.
  • 14
    Fraser A, Tilling K, Macdonald-Wallis C, et al. Association of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring obesity and metabolic and vascular traits in childhood. Circulation 2010;121:25572564.
  • 15
    Savitz DA, Stein CR, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH. Gestational weight gain and birth outcome in relation to prepregnancy body mass index and ethnicity. Ann Epidemiol 2011;21:7885.
  • 16
    Ehrenberg HM, Mercer BM, Catalano PM. The influence of obesity and diabetes on the prevalence of macrosomia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:964968.
  • 17
    Jolly MC, Sebire NJ, Harris JP, Rogan L, Robinson S. Risk factors for macrosomia and its clinical consequences: a study of 350.311 pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003;111:914.
  • 18
    Sarris I, Bottemley C, Daemen A, et al. No Influence of body mass index on first trimester fetal growth. Hum Reprod 2010;25:18951899.
  • 19
    Institute of Medicine (IOM). National Academy of Science: Nutrition during Pregnancy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1990.
  • 20
    Hickey CA. Sociocultural and behavioral influences on gain weight during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1364S1370S.
  • 21
    Dawes MG, Grudzinskas JG. Patterns of maternal weight gain in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991;98:195201.
  • 22
    Carmichael S, Abrams B, Selvin S. The pattern of maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcomes. Am J Public Health 1997;87:19841988.
  • 23
    Butte NF, Ellis KJ, Wong WW, Hopkinson JM, Smith EO. Composition of gestational weight gain impacts maternal fat retention and infant birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:14231432.
  • 24
    Ochsenbein-Kölble N, Roos M, Gasser T, Zimmermann R. Cross-sectional study of weight gain and increase in BMI throughout pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007;130:180186.
  • 25
    Helleburst H, Johnsen SL, Rasmussen S, Kiserud T. Maternal weight gain: a determinant for fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011;90:666670. Doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01129.x.
  • 26
    James GM, Sugar CA. Clustering for sparsely sampled functional data. J Am Stat Assoc 2003;98:397408.
  • 27
    Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard HZ, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birthrates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. The Lancet 2012;379:21622172.
  • 28
    Hadlock FP, Harrist RB, Sharman RS, Deter RL, Park SK. Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body, and femur measurements — a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151:333337.
  • 29
    Geert V, Molenderghs G. Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. Springer Series in Statistics. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000.
  • 30
    Yosef Hochberg. A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance, Biometrika 1988;75:800802.
  • 31
    Guelinckx I, Devlieger R, Mullie P, Vansant G. Effect of lifestyle intervention on dietary habits, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in obese pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:373380.
  • 32
    Ricart W, Lopez J, Mozas J, et al. Body mass index has a greater impact on pregnancy outcomes than gestational hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 2005;48:17361742.
  • 33
    Schaefer-Graf UM, Heuer R, Kilavuz O, Pandura A, Henrich W, Vetter K. Maternal obesity not maternal glucose values correlates best with high rates of fetal macrosomia in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. J Perinat Med 2002;30:313321.
  • 34
    Li C, Goran MI, Kaur H, Nollen N, Ahluwalia JS. Developmental trajectories of overweight during childhood: role of early life factors. Obesity 2007;15:760771.
  • 35
    Ay L, Kruithof CJ, Bakker C, et al. Maternal anthropometrics are associated with fetal size in different periods of pregnancy and birth. The Generation R study. BJOG 2009;116:953963.
  • 36
    ACOG guidelines. ACOG committee opinion.Number 267, January 2002/ exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstet Gynecol 2002;1:171173.
  • 37
    Thangaratinam S, Rogozinska E, Jolly K, et al. Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence. BMJ 2012;344:e2088.
  • 38
    Rowland ML. Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:11251133.
  • 39
    Stevens-Simmons C, Roghmann KJ, McAnarney ER. Relationship of self-reported prepregnant weight and weight gain during pregnancy to maternal body habitus and age. J Am Diet Assoc 1992;92:8587.