Effects of fructose and glucose overfeeding on hepatic insulin sensitivity and intrahepatic lipids in healthy humans

Authors


  • Disclosure: LT has received research support from Nestec SA for one of the studies included in this report. Kim-Anne L is presently an employee of Nestec SA. The other authors do not have any conflict of interest with regard to this manuscript.

  • Funding agencies: This study was supported by grants Nr 138428/1 and 132935 from the Swiss national Foundation for Science to LT, CB, and RK.

Abstract

Objective:

To assess how intrahepatic fat and insulin resistance relate to daily fructose and energy intake during short-term overfeeding in healthy subjects.

Design and methods:

The analysis of the data collected in several studies in which fasting hepatic glucose production (HGP), hepatic insulin sensitivity index (HISI), and intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) had been measured after both 6-7 days on a weight-maintenance diet (control, C; n = 55) and 6-7 days of overfeeding with 1.5 (F1.5, n = 7), 3 (F3, n = 17), or 4 g fructose/kg/day (F4, n = 10), with 3 g glucose/kg/day (G3, n = 11), or with 30% excess energy as saturated fat (fat30%, n = 10).

Results:

F3, F4, G3, and fat30% all significantly increased IHCL, respectively by 113 ± 86, 102 ± 115, 59 ± 92, and 90 ± 74% as compared to C (all P < 0.05). F4 and G3 increased HGP by 16 ± 10 and 8 ± 11% (both P < 0.05), and F3 and F4 significantly decreased HISI by 20 ± 22 and 19 ± 14% (both P < 0.01). In contrast, there was no significant effect of fat30% on HGP or HISI.

Conclusions:

Short-term overfeeding with fructose or glucose decreases hepatic insulin sensitivity and increases hepatic fat content. This indicates short-term regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism by simple carbohydrates.

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