Author contribution: A.G.O. researched and interpreted data, contributed to discussion, wrote, edited, and reviewed the article; T.G.A. researched and interpreted data, contributed to discussion, and reviewed the article; B.M.C. researched and interpreted data, reviewed the article; D.G, G.Z.R., and R.A.B. researched and interpreted data; J.B.C.C. contributed to discussion and reviewed the article; M.J.A.S. contributed to discussion, edited, and reviewed the article. All authors approved the final version.
Acute exercise induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization in diet-induced obese rats
Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013
Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society
Volume 21, Issue 12, pages 2545–2556, December 2013
How to Cite
Oliveira, A. G., Araujo, T. G., Carvalho, B. M., Guadagnini, D., Rocha, G. Z., Bagarolli, R. A., Carvalheira, J. B. C. and Saad, M. J.A. (2013), Acute exercise induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization in diet-induced obese rats. Obesity, 21: 2545–2556. doi: 10.1002/oby.20402
Disclosure: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Funding agencies: This work was supported by grants from Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP, Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq), and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) - Obesidade e Diabetes.
- Issue published online: 3 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 MAR 2013 02:48AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 8 OCT 2012
- Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP
- Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa – CNPq
- Institutos Nacionais de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) – Obesidade e Diabetes
It has become clear that exercise may be a useful therapy in the insulin resistance treatment, as it has anti-inflammatory effects and improves insulin sensitivity. However, it remains uncertain whether exercise affects the adipocytes or infiltrated macrophages. Thus, the aim was to investigate the effects of acute exercise on the inflammatory status and insulin signaling of the white adipose tissue (WAT) fractions (stromal-vascular fraction [SVF] and adipocytes).
Design and Methods
The effect of acute swimming exercise was investigated on insulin sensitivity, insulin signaling, inflammatory pathways in the WAT fractions of high-fat fed Wistar rats. Additionally, macrophage infiltration and polarization were analyzed in the WAT.
Acute exercise can improve insulin signaling in WAT fractions, along with a phenotypic switch from M1- to M2-macrophages in obese rats, as indicated by a marked increase in macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 1-positive cells in WAT was observed. Additionally, exercise promoted a reduction in circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide, and toll-like receptor 4 activity along with TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta and MCP-1 mRNA levels in WAT fractions.
These data suggest that acute exercise improves insulin signaling in the WAT, at least in part by inducing macrophage polarization toward the M2-state.