Funding agencies: The Sydney Myopia Study (Sydney Childhood Eye Study) was supported by the Australian National Health & Medical Research Council (grant no. 253732); the Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney; the Vision Co-operative Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney; and the National Heart Foundation of Australia (grant no. G11S 6106), Melbourne, Australia.
Carbohydrate nutrition and development of adiposity during adolescence
Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013
Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society
Volume 21, Issue 9, pages 1884–1890, September 2013
How to Cite
Gopinath, B., Flood, V. M., Rochtchina, E., Baur, L. A., Louie, J. C. Y., Smith, W. and Mitchell, P. (2013), Carbohydrate nutrition and development of adiposity during adolescence. Obesity, 21: 1884–1890. doi: 10.1002/oby.20405
Author's contributions: Study concept and design: BG and PM, Acquisition of data: PM; Analysis and interpretation of data: BG, VF, JCYL, ER, PM; Drafting of the manuscript: BG and PM; Critical revision of the manuscript: BG, VF, ER, LAB, JCYL, WS, PM.
- Issue published online: 23 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 21 MAR 2013 05:15AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 18 APR 2012
- The Sydney Myopia Study (Sydney Childhood Eye Study) was supported by the Australian National Health & Medical Research Council. Grant Number: 253732
- The Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney
- The Vision Co-operative Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney
- The National Heart Foundation of Australia. Grant Number: G11S 6106
- Melbourne, Australia
To examine the prospective association between glycemic index, glycemic load (GL) of diets and intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and the main carbohydrate containing food groups (e.g., soft drinks) with changes in percent body fat, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference among adolescents.
Design and Methods
Students aged 12 at baseline (n = 856) were examined both in 2004-2005 and 2009-2011. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered. Anthropometric parameters were measured and defined using standardized protocols.
After multivariable adjustment, in girls, each 1-SD increase in dietary GL was associated with concurrent 0.77 kg/m2 and 1.45 cm increase in BMI and waist circumference, respectively (both P = 0.01). Conversely, each 1-SD increase in dietary fiber intake was associated with a concurrent 0.44 kg/m2 decrease in mean BMI in girls (P = 0.02) and 1.45 cm decrease in waist circumference in boys (P = 0.002). Girls who consumed soft drinks once or more per day versus those who never/rarely consumed soft drinks, had a 4.45% increase in percent body fat after 5 years (Ptrend = 0.01).
High-GL foods might adversely influence development of body composition, particularly in girls, whereas fiber-rich diets could limit excess weight during adolescence.