• 1
    Kaplan MS, Huguet N, McFarland BH, Newsom JT. Suicide among male Veterans: A prospective population-based study. Epidemiol J Community Health 2007;61:619-624.
  • 2
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA 2010;303:235-241.
  • 3
    Kress AM, Hartzel MC, Peterson MR. Burden of disease associated with overweight and obesity among US military retirees and their dependents, aged 38-64, 2003. Prev Med 2005;41:63-69.
  • 4
    Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA. 1999;282:1523-1529.
  • 5
    Simon GE, Von Korff M, Saunders K, et al. Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63:824-830.
  • 6
    Ilgen MA, Bohnert ASB, Ignacio RV, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses and risk of suicide in Veterans. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:1152-1158.
  • 7
    Friedman MA, Brownell KD. Psychological correlates of obesity: moving to the next generation. Psychol Bull 1995;117:3-20.
  • 8
    Barry D, Pietrzak RH, Petry NM. Gender differences in associations between body mass index and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders: results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions. Ann Epidemiol 2008;18:458-466.
  • 9
    Carpenter KM, Hasin DS, Allison DB, Faith MS. Relationship between obesity and DSM-IV major depressive disorder, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: results from a general population study. Am J Public Health 2000;90:251-257.
  • 10
    Palinkas LA, Wingard DL, Barrett-Connor E. Depressive symptoms in overweight and obese older adults: a test of the “Jolly Fat” hypothesis. J Psychosom Res 1996;40:59-66.
  • 11
    Kress AM, Peterson MR, Hartzell MC. Association between obesity and depressive symptoms among U.S. military active duty personnel, 2002. J Psychosom Res 2006;60:263-271.
  • 12
    de Wit L, Luppino F, van Straten A, Penninx B, Zitman F, Cuijpers P. Depression and obesity: a meta-analysis of community-based studies. Psychiatry Res 2010;178:230-235.
  • 13
    Batty GD, Whitley E, Kivimaki M, Tynelius P, Rasmussen F. Body mass index and attempted suicide: Cohort study of 1,133,019 Swedish men. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:890-899.
  • 14
    Paffenbarger RS, Asnes DP. Chronic disease in former college students: III. Precursors of suicide in early and middle Life. Am J Public Health 1966;56:1026-1036.
  • 15
    Magnusson PKE, Rasmussen F, Lawlor DA, Tynelius P, Gunnell D. Association of body mass index with suicide mortality: a prospective cohort study of more than one million men. Am J Epidemiol 2006;163:1-8.
  • 16
    Mukamal KJ, Kawachi I, Miller M, Rimm EB. Body mass index and risk of suicide among men. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:468-475.
  • 17
    Jee SH, Kivimaki M, Kang HC, Park IS, Samet JM, Batty GD. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in relation to suicide mortality in Asia: prospective cohort study of over one million Korean men and women. Eur Heart J 2011;229:1-8.
  • 18
    Mukamal KJ, Rimm EB, Kawachi I, O'Reilly EJ, Calle EE, Miller M. Body mass index and risk of suicide among one million US adults. Epidemiology 2010;21:82-86.
  • 19
    Bjerkeset O, Romundstad P, Evans J, Gunnell D. Association of adult body mass index and height with anxiety, depression, and suicide in the general population. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:193-202.
  • 20
    Chang SS, Wen CP, Tsai MK, Lawlor DA, Yang YC, Gunnell D. Adiposity, its related biologic risk factors, and suicide: a cohort study of 542,088 Taiwanese adults. Am J Epidemiol 2012;175:804-815.
  • 21
    Mukamal KJ, Miller M. Invited commentary: body mass index and suicide — untangling an unlikely association. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:900-904.
  • 22
    Mann JJ, McBride A, Brown RP, et al. Relationship between central and peripheral serotonin indexes in depressed and suicidal psychiatric inpatients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:442-446.
  • 23
    Golomb BA, Mednick SA, Tenkanen L. Suicide: a weighty matter? Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1908.
  • 24
    Asellus P, Nordstrom P, Jokinen J. Cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA in attempted suicide. J Affect Disord 2010;125:388-392.
  • 25
    de Leon J, Mallory P, Maw L, Susce MT, Perez-Rodriguez MM, Baca-Garcia E. Lack of replication of the association of low serum cholesterol and attempted suicide in another country raises more questions. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2011;23:163-170.
  • 26
    Terracciano A, Sutin AR, McCrae RR, et al. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight. Psychosom Med 2009;71:682-689.
  • 27
    Kendler KS, Gatz M, Gardner CO, Pedersen NL. Personality and major depression: a Swedish longitudinal, population-based twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63:1113-1120.
  • 28
    Mukamal KJ, Miller M. BMI and risk factors for suicide: Why is BMI inversely related to suicide? Obesity 2009;17:532-538.
  • 29
    Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. The epidemiology of case fatality rates for suicide in the northeast. Ann Emerg Med 2004;43:723-730.
  • 30
    Holm-Denoma JM, Witte TK, Gordon KH, et al. Deaths by suicide among individuals with anorexia as arbiters between competing explanations of the anorexia-suicide link. J Affect Disord 2008;107:231-236.
  • 31
    McCarthy JF, Valenstein M, Kim HM, et al. Suicide mortality among patients receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration Health System. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:1033-1038.
  • 32
    Noel PH, Copeland LA, Perrin RA, et al. VHA corporate data warehouse height and weight data: opportunities and challenges for health services research. J Rehabil Res Dev 2010;47:739-750.
  • 33
    Das SR, Kinsinger LS, Yancy WS, et al. Obesity prevalence among Veterans at Veterans Affairs Medical Facilities. Am J Prev Med 2005;28:291-294.
  • 34
    Basham C, Denneson LM, Millet L, Shen X, Duckart J, Dobscha SK. Characteristics of VA Health Care Utilization of U.S. Veterans who completed suicide in Oregon between 2000 and 2005. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2011;41:287-296.
  • 35
    Conner KR, Duberstein PR, Conwell Y, Seidlitz L, Caine ED. Psychological vulnerability to completed suicide: a review of empirical studies. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2001;31:367-385.
  • 36
    Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N. The relationship of body weight to suicide risk among men and women: Results from the US National Health Interview Survey linked mortality file. J Nerv Ment Dis 2007;195:948-951.
  • 37
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National suicide statistics at a Glance: case fatality rate among persons ages 10 years and older for males and females separately, and by selected mechanism for both sexes combined, United States, 2005–2009. (Accessed 12/28/12).
  • 38
    McCarthy JF, Blow FC, Ignacio RV, Ilgen MA, Austin KL, Valenstein M. Suicide among patients in the Veterans Affairs Health System: rural-urban differences in rates, risks, and methods. Am J Public Health 2012;102:S111-S117.
  • 39
    Kaplan MS, McFarland BH, Huguet N. Firearm suicide among Veterans in the general population: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. J Trauma 2009;67:503-507.
  • 40
    Katz IR, McCarthy JF, Ignacio RV, Kemp J. Suicide among Veterans in 16 states, 2005 to 2008: comparisons between utilizers and nonutilizers of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services based on data from the National Death Index, the National Violent Death Reporting System, and VHA Administrative Records. Am J Public Health 2012;102:S105-S110.