Funding agencies: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (N01-HC95095 & N01-HC48047), University of Minnesota (N01-HC48048), Northwestern University (N01-HC48049), Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (N01-HC48050). Dr. Dutton is supported by a career development award from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K23DK081607).
Perceived weight discrimination in the CARDIA study: Differences by race, sex, and weight status
Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013
Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society
Volume 22, Issue 2, pages 530–536, February 2014
How to Cite
Dutton, G. R., Lewis, T. T., Durant, N., Halanych, J., Kiefe, C. I., Sidney, S., Kim, Y. and Lewis, C. E. (2014), Perceived weight discrimination in the CARDIA study: Differences by race, sex, and weight status. Obesity, 22: 530–536. doi: 10.1002/oby.20438
Disclosures: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- Issue published online: 3 FEB 2014
- Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 MAR 2013 02:26AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 21 NOV 2012
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
- University of Alabama at Birmingham. Grant Numbers: N01-HC95095, N01-HC48047
- University of Minnesota. Grant Number: N01-HC48048
- Northwestern University. Grant Number: N01-HC48049
- Kaiser Foundation Research Institute. Grant Number: N01-HC48050
- National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Grant Number: K23DK081607
To examine self-reported weight discrimination and differences based on race, sex, and BMI in a biracial cohort of community-based middle-aged adults.
Design and Methods
Participants (3,466, mean age = 50 years, mean BMI = 30 kg/m2) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who completed the 25-year examination of this epidemiological investigation in 2010-2011 were reported. The sample included normal weight, overweight, and obese participants. CARDIA participants are distributed into four race–sex groups, with about half being African-American and half White. Participants completed a self-reported measure of weight discrimination.
Among overweight/obese participants, weight discrimination was lowest for White men (12.0%) and highest for White women (30.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for weight discrimination in those with class 2/3 obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) versus the normal-weight was most pronounced: African American men, 4.59 (1.71-12.34); African American women, 7.82 (3.57-17.13); White men, 6.99 (2.27-21.49); and White women, 18.60 (8.97-38.54). Being overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2) vs. normal weight was associated with increased discrimination in White women only: 2.10 (1.11-3.96).
Novel evidence for a race–sex interaction on perceived weight discrimination, with White women more likely to report discrimination at all levels of overweight and obesity was provided. Pychosocial mechanisms responsible for these differences deserve exploration.