• 1
    World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. WHO Technical Report Series no.894; 1999.
  • 2
    Blokstra A, Vissink P, Venmans LMAJ, et al. Measuring the Netherlands. A Monitoring Study of Risk Factors in the General Population, 2009-2010. RIVM Report no. 260152001; 2011.
  • 3
    Karelis AD, St Pierre DH, Conus F, et al. Metabolic and body composition factors in subgroups of obesity: what do we know? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2569-2575.
  • 4
    Bluher M. The distinction of metabolically ‘healthy’ from ‘unhealthy’ obese individuals. Curr Opin Lipidol 2010;21:38-43.
  • 5
    Primeau V, Coderre L, Karelis AD, et al. Characterizing the profile of obese patients who are metabolically healthy. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011;35:971-981.
  • 6
    Calori G, Lattuada G, Piemonti L, et al. Prevalence, metabolic features, and prognosis of metabolically healthy obese Italian individuals: the Cremona Study. Diabetes Care 2011;34:210-215.
  • 7
    Wildman RP. Healthy obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009;12:438-443.
  • 8
    Velho S, Paccaud F, Waeber G, et al. Metabolically healthy obesity: different prevalences using different criteria. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:1043-1051.
  • 9
    Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, Wang Y, et al. Waist circumference and all-cause mortality in a large US cohort. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1293-1301.
  • 10
    Leitzmann MF, Moore SC, Koster A, et al. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes. PLoS One 2011;6:e18582.
  • 11
    Beulens JW, Monninkhof EM, Verschuren WM, et al. Cohort profile: the EPIC-NL study. Int J Epidemiol 2010;39:1170-1178.
  • 12
    Verschuren WM, Blokstra A, Picavet HS, et al. Cohort profile: the doetinchem cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 2008;37:1236-1241.
  • 13
    Ocke MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Goddijn HE, et al. The Dutch EPIC food frequency questionnaire. I. Description of the questionnaire, and relative validity and reproducibility for food groups. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26 (Suppl 1):S37-S48.
  • 14
    Ocke MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Pols MA, et al. The Dutch EPIC food frequency questionnaire. II. Relative validity and reproducibility for nutrients. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26 (Suppl 1):S49-S58.
  • 15
    Nevo Foundation. Dutch food composition table (Nederlands Voedingsstoffenbestand, NEVO table). Dutch Nutrition Center (Voedingscentrum/Voorlichtingsbureau voor de Voeding). The Hague: 1996.
  • 16
    Pols MA, Peeters PH, Ocke MC, et al. Relative validity and repeatability of a new questionnaire on physical activity. Prev Med 1997;26:37-43.
  • 17
    Voorrips LE, Ravelli AC, Dongelmans PC, et al. A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991;23:974-979.
  • 18
    Wareham NJ, Jakes RW, Rennie KL, et al. Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 2003;6:407-413.
  • 19
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American heart association/national heart, lung, and blood institute scientific statement. Circulation 2005;112:2735-2752.
  • 20
    Smulders YM, Burgers JS, Scheltens T, et al. Clinical practice guideline for cardiovascular risk management in the Netherlands. Neth J Med 2008;66:169-174.
  • 21
    Rutten GEHM, De Grauw WJC, Nijpels G, et al. NHG-standaard diabetes mellitus type 2. Tweede herziening. [Practice guideline ‘Diabetes mellitus type 2’ (second revision) of the Dutch College of General Practitioners]. Huisarts Wet 2006;49:137-152.
  • 22
    Kuk JL, Ardern CI. Are metabolically normal but obese individuals at lower risk for all-cause mortality? Diabet Care 2009;32:2297-2299.
  • 23
    Arnlov J, Ingelsson E, Sundstrom J, et al. Impact of body mass index and the metabolic syndrome on the risk of cardiovascular disease and death in middle-aged men. Circulation 2010;121:230-236.
  • 24
    Hamer M, Stamatakis E. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:2482-2488.
  • 25
    Ortega FB, Lee DC, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. The intriguing metabolically healthy but obese phenotype: cardiovascular prognosis and role of fitness. Eur Heart J 2013;34:389-397.
  • 26
    Abdullah A, Stoelwinder J, Shortreed S, et al. The duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutr 2011;14:119-126.
  • 27
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Duration of overweight and metabolic health risk in American men and women. Ann Epidemiol 2004;14:585-591.
  • 28
    Manu P, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, Tsang J, et al. Dysmetabolic signals in “metabolically healthy“ obesity. Obes Res Clin Pract 2012;6:e9-e20.
  • 29
    Janiszewski PM, Ross R. Effects of weight loss among metabolically healthy obese men and women. Diabet Care 2010;33:1957-1959.
  • 30
    Shin MJ, Hyun YJ, Kim OY, et al. Weight loss effect on inflammation and LDL oxidation in metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals: low inflammation and LDL oxidation in MHO women. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30:1529-1534.
  • 31
    Karelis AD, Messier V, Brochu M, et al. Metabolically healthy but obese women: effect of an energy-restricted diet. Diabetologia 2008;51:1752-1754.
  • 32
    Bobbioni-Harsch E, Pataky Z, Makoundou V, et al. From metabolic normality to cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2012;20:2063-2069.
  • 33
    Wildman RP, Muntner P, Reynolds K, et al. The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the US population (NHANES 1999-2004). Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1617-1624.
  • 34
    Karelis AD, Brochu M, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Can we identify metabolically healthy but obese individuals (MHO)? Diabet Metab 2004;30:569-572.
  • 35
    Karelis AD, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Inclusion of C-reactive protein in the identification of metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals. Diabet Metab 2008;34:183-184.
  • 36
    Shea JL, Randell EW, Sun G. The prevalence of metabolically healthy obese subjects defined by BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19:624-630.
  • 37
    Mora S, Rifai N, Buring JE, et al. Fasting compared with nonfasting lipids and apolipoproteins for predicting incident cardiovascular events. Circulation 2008;118:993-1001.
  • 38
    Moebus S, Gores L, Losch C, et al. Impact of time since last caloric intake on blood glucose levels. Eur J Epidemiol 2011;26:719-728.
  • 39
    Snijder MB, van Dam RM, Visser M, et al. What aspects of body fat are particularly hazardous and how do we measure them? Int J Epidemiol 2006;35:83-92.
  • 40
    Brochu M, Tchernof A, Dionne IJ, et al. What are the physical characteristics associated with a normal metabolic profile despite a high level of obesity in postmenopausal women? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1020-1025.