Musculoskeletal deterioration in men accompanies increases in body fat

Authors

  • Julie A Pasco,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    2. NorthWest Academic Centre, Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
    3. Department of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
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  • Haslinda Gould,

    1. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    2. NorthWest Academic Centre, Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
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  • Sharon L Brennan,

    1. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    2. NorthWest Academic Centre, Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
    3. Australian Institute for Musculo-Skeletal Science, The University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
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  • Geoff C. Nicholson,

    1. Rural Clinical School, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
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  • Mark A Kotowicz

    1. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    2. NorthWest Academic Centre, Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
    3. Department of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
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  • Funding agencies: The study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia and Geelong Regional Medical Foundation, but they played no part in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. SLB is supported by NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (1012472).

  • Disclosure: JAP has received speaker fees from Amgen, Eli Lilly and Sanofi-Aventis and funding from the Geelong Region Medical Research Foundation, Barwon Health, Perpetual Trustees, the Dairy Research and Development Corporation, The University of Melbourne, the Ronald Geoffrey Arnott Foundation, ANZ Charitable Trust, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Amgen (Europe) GmBH and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).

    HG has received travel grants from the Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society and a young investigator award from the International Osteoporosis Foundation.

    SLB is supported by an NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (1012472).

    GCN has received speaker fees from Servier, Novartis and Amgen.

    MAK has served on Advisory Boards for Novartis and Amgen and has received speaker fees and travel support from Amgen, Eli Lilly, Merck Sharpe and Dohme, Novartis, Sanofi Aventis, Servier, and funding from the Geelong Region Medical Research Foundation, Barwon Health, Perpetual Trustees, the Dairy Research and Development Corporation, The University of Melbourne, the Ronald Geoffrey Arnott Foundation, ANZ Charitable Trust, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Amgen (Europe) GmBH and the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia).

Abstract

Objective

To examine body fat and musculoskeletal changes in men over 5 years.

Methods

Body composition was evaluated for men in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study using whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during two time-periods. DXA was performed for 1329 men (25-96 years) during 2001-2006 and for 900 men (25-98 years), 2006-2011. The masses of fat, lean, and bone were expressed relative to the square of height (kg/m2). Each compartment was also expressed as a percentage relative to body weight (%fat, %lean, %bone).

Results

Mean BMI increased from 26.9 kg/m2 in 2001-2006, to 27.2 kg/m2 in 2006-2011 (P = 0.04). Mean fat mass increased by 9.0% from 6.98 kg/m2 (95%CI 6.84-7.11) in 2001-2006, to 7.60 kg/m2 (7.44-7.77) in 2006-2011 (P < 0.001); mean lean mass decreased by 0.9%, from 18.92 kg/m2 (18.83-19.01) to 18.75 kg/m2 (18.64-18.86) (P = 0.02), and mean bone mass decreased 1.6% from 1.041 kg/m2 (1.034-1.047), to 1.024 kg/m2 (1.016-1.032). Mean %fat increased from 23.4% to 25.2%, mean %lean decreased from 72.6% to 70.9% and mean %bone decreased from 4.0% to 3.9% (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions

An increase in BMI, which reflects a substantial increase in body fat mass and declines in both lean and bone mass was reported. This may have implications for future development of bone fragility, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity.

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