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Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclooxygenase inhibition improves vascular dysfunction of adipose microvessels from obese humans.

Design and Methods

In 20 obese subjects (age 37 ± 12 years, BMI 47 ± 8 kg/m2), subcutaneous and visceral fat were collected during bariatric surgery and characterized for adipose depot-specific gene expression, endothelial cell phenotype, and microvascular function. Vasomotor function was assessed in response to endothelium-dependent agonists using videomicroscopy of small arterioles from fat.

Results

Arterioles from visceral fat exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation, compared to the subcutaneous depot (P < 0.001). Expression of mRNA transcripts relevant to the cyclooxygenase pathway was upregulated in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. Pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin improved endothelium-dependent vasodilator function of arterioles from visceral fat by twofold (P = 0.01), whereas indomethacin had no effect in the subcutaneous depot. Indomethacin increased activation via serine-1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in response to acetylcholine in endothelial cells from visceral fat. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester abrogated the effects of cyclooxygenase-inhibition suggesting that vascular actions of indomethacin were related to increased nitric oxide bioavailability.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that cyclooxygenase-mediated vasoconstrictor prostanoids partly contribute to endothelial dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity.