Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure, and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

Authors

  • James P. DeLany,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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  • David E. Kelley,

    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    Current affiliation:
    1. Kelley is Merck Sharp and Dohme Corporation, Rahway, NJ
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  • Kazanna C. Hames,

    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    2. Department of Health and Physical Activity, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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  • John M. Jakicic,

    1. Department of Health and Physical Activity, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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  • Bret H. Goodpaster

    1. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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  • Funding agencies: This study was funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health.

  • Disclosure: JMJ conflicts of interest: Scientific Advisory Board for ILSI North America. The other authors report no conflict of interest.

  • Author contributions: The authors' responsibilities were as follows — JPD, DEK, JMJ and BHG: design of the study; JPD, BHG, JMJ and KCH: collection of data; JPD: analysis of the data, wrote the manuscript, and had primary responsibility for final content; and all authors: interpretation of the data and critical revision of the manuscript.

Abstract

Objective

Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss.

Design and Methods

The total EE was examined by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the intake/balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA).

Results

Weight loss of 9.6 ± 6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122 ± 319 vs. −376 ± 305 kcal day−1), elimination of the drop in AEE (83 ± 279 vs. −211 ± 284 kcal day−1) and greater weight loss (13.0 ± 7.0 vs. 8.1 ± 6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12.

Conclusion

Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions.

Ancillary