Cross-sectional associations of objectively measured physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometry in European adults

Authors

  • Angelika Wientzek,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany
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  • María-José Tormo Díaz,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain
    2. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
    3. Department of Health and Social Sciences, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
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  • Jose Maria Huerta Castaño,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain
    2. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
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  • Pilar Amiano,

    1. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
    2. Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain
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  • Larraitz Arriola,

    1. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
    2. Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain
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  • Kim Overvad,

    1. Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Alborg, Denmark
    2. Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
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  • Jane Nautrup Østergaard,

    1. Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Alborg, Denmark
    2. Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
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  • Marie-Aline Charles,

    1. Inserm U1018, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Villejuif, France
    2. Paris South University, Villejuif, France
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  • Guy Fagherazzi,

    1. Inserm U1018, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Villejuif, France
    2. Paris South University, Villejuif, France
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  • Domenico Palli,

    1. Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute – ISPO, Florence, Italy
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  • Benedetta Bendinelli,

    1. Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute – ISPO, Florence, Italy
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  • Guri Skeie,

    1. Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
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  • Kristin Benjaminsen Borch,

    1. Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
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  • Wanda Wendel-Vos,

    1. Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
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  • Ellen de Hollander,

    1. Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    2. Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
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  • Anne M. May,

    1. Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Marjolein EM den Ouden,

    1. Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Antonia Trichopoulou,

    1. Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece
    2. WHO Collaborating Center for Food and Nutrition Policies, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece
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  • Elissavet Valanou,

    1. Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece
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  • Stefan Söderberg,

    1. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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  • Paul W. Franks,

    1. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
    2. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
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  • Soren Brage,

    1. MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
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  • Matthäus Vigl,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany
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  • Heiner Boeing,

    1. Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany
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  • Ulf Ekelund

    1. MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    2. Department of Sport Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway
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  • Disclosure: The authors declared no conflict of interest.

  • Author contributions: UE designed the study, UE, PF, SB, HB, MJTD, JMHC, LA, KO, MAC, DP, KBB, WWV, AMM, and AT, were involved in data collection. AW did the literature research, analyzed the data, interpreted it, and generated the figures. All authors were involved in writing the paper and had final approval of the submitted and published versions.

Abstract

Objective

To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women.

Methods

2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits 4 months apart for a total of 8 days. CRF (ml/kg/min) was estimated from an 8 minute ramped step test. A cross-sectional analysis of the independent associations between objectively measured PA (m/s2/d), moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (%time/d), sedentary time (%time/d), CRF, and anthropometry using sex stratified multiple linear regression was performed.

Results

In mutually adjusted models, CRF, PA, and MVPA were inversely associated with all anthropometric markers in women. In men, CRF, PA, and MVPA were inversely associated with BMI, whereas only CRF was significantly associated with the other anthropometric markers. Sedentary time was positively associated with all anthropometric markers, however, after adjustment for CRF significant in women only.

Conclusion

CRF, PA, MVPA, and sedentary time are differently associated with anthropometric markers in men and women. CRF appears to attenuate associations between PA, MVPA, and sedentary time. These observations may have implications for prevention of obesity.

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