Peptide YY (PYY3-36) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) potently inhibit food intake in rodents and humans, however, it is unclear whether they have any synergistic/additive interaction in decreasing food intake.

Design and Methods

Fasted WT, Y2/, Y4/, or Y2Y4/ mice were i.p. administrated with saline, PYY3-36, and/or PP.


Combined injection of PYY3-36 and PP reduces food intake in an additive manner was demonstrated in this study. This effect is mediated via Y2 and Y4 receptors, respectively. It was demonstrated that PYY3-36 and PP activate distinct neuronal pathways in the hypothalamus, as demonstrated by immunostaining for c-fos, which shows distinct patterns in response to either hormone. After PYY3-36 injection, neurons in the dorsal aspect of the arcuate nucleus (Arc), paraventricular nucleus, and dorso-medial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) are activated with minimal responses seen in the ventro-medial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of WT mice. These effects are absent in Y2/ mice. PP activates preferably the lateral aspect of the Arc, the DMH, VMH, and LHA in a Y4 receptor-dependent manner. Importantly, the expression pattern of c-fos immunoreactive neurons induced by combined treatment appears to be the sum of the effects of single treatments rather than a result of synergistic interaction.


These findings demonstrate that PYY3-36 and PP activate distinct pathways in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake in an additive manner.