• 1
    Conte C, Fabbrini E, Kars M, Mittendorfer B, Patterson BW, Klein S. Multiorgan insulin sensitivity in lean and obese subjects. Diabetes Care 2012;35:1316-1321.
  • 2
    Reeds DN, Stuart CA, Perez O, Klein S. Adipose tissue, hepatic, and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in extremely obese subjects with acanthosis nigricans. Metabolism 2006;55:1658-1663.
  • 3
    McQuaid SE, Hodson L, Neville MJ, Dennis AL, Cheeseman J, Humphreys SM et al. Downregulation of adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking in obesity: a driver for ectopic fat deposition? Diabetes 2011;60:47-55.
  • 4
    Hickner RC, Racette SB, Binder EF, Fisher JS, Kohrt WM. Suppression of whole body and regional lipolysis by insulin: effects of obesity and exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3886-3895.
  • 5
    Mittendorfer B. Origins of metabolic complications in obesity: adipose tissue and free fatty acid trafficking. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14:535-541.
  • 6
    Wadden D, Cahill F, Amini P, Randell E, Vasdev S, Yi Y, et al. Serum acylated ghrelin concentrations in response to short-term overfeeding in normal weight, overweight, and obese men. PLoS One 2012;7:e45748.
  • 7
    Lagerpusch M, Bosy-Westphal A, Kehden B, Peters A, Muller MJ. Effects of brief perturbations in energy balance on indices of glucose homeostasis in healthy lean men. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012;36:1094-1101.
  • 8
    Samocha-Bonet D, Campbell LV, Mori TA, Croft KD, Greenfield JR, Turner N, et al. Overfeeding reduces insulin sensitivity and increases oxidative stress, without altering markers of mitochondrial content and function in humans. PLoS One 2012;7:e36320.
  • 9
    Olefsky J, Crapo PA, Ginsberg H, Reaven GM. Metabolic effects of increased caloric intake in man. Metabolism 1975;24:495-503.
  • 10
    Clore JN, Helm ST, Blackard WG. Loss of hepatic autoregulation after carbohydrate overfeeding in normal man. J Clin Invest 1995;96:1967-1972.
  • 11
    Adochio RL, Leitner JW, Gray K, Draznin B, Cornier MA. Early responses of insulin signaling to high-carbohydrate and high-fat overfeeding. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2009;6:37.
  • 12
    Minehira K, Vega N, Vidal H, Acheson K, Tappy L. Effect of carbohydrate overfeeding on whole body macronutrient metabolism and expression of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of lean and overweight humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:1291-1298.
  • 13
    Brons C, Jensen CB, Storgaard H, Hiscock NJ, White A, Appel JS, et al. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young healthy men. J Physiol 2009;587:2387-2397.
  • 14
    Tam CS, Viardot A, Clement K, Tordjman J, Tonks K, Greenfield JR, et al. Short-term overfeeding may induce peripheral insulin resistance without altering subcutaneous adipose tissue macrophages in humans. Diabetes 2010;59:2164-2170.
  • 15
    Ngo Sock ET, Le KA, Ith M, Kreis R, Boesch C, Tappy L. Effects of a short-term overfeeding with fructose or glucose in healthy young males. Br J Nutr 2010;103:939-943.
  • 16
    Kim SP, Catalano KJ, Hsu IR, Chiu JD, Richey JM, Bergman RN. Nocturnal free fatty acids are uniquely elevated in the longitudinal development of diet-induced insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007;292:E1590-1598.
  • 17
    Axelsen M, Lonnroth P, Arvidsson Lenner R, Smith U. Suppression of the nocturnal free fatty acid levels by bedtime cornstarch in NIDDM subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 1997;27:157-163.
  • 18
    Axelsen M, Lonnroth P, Lenner RA, Taskinen MR, Smith U. Suppression of nocturnal fatty acid concentrations by bedtime carbohydrate supplement in type 2 diabetes: effects on insulin sensitivity, lipids, and glycemic control. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1108-1114.
  • 19
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Washington, DC: USDHHS; 2008.
  • 20
    Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43:1334-1359.
  • 21
    James WPT, Schofield EC. Human Energy Requirements. A Manual for Planners and Nutritionists. Oxford University Press / The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Oxford, UK, 1990, p^pp.
  • 22
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR Jr., Tudor-Locke C et al. 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43:1575-1581.
  • 23
    Schneeman BO, Kotite L, Todd KM, Havel RJ. Relationships between the responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in blood plasma containing apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100 to a fat-containing meal in normolipidemic humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:2069-2073.
  • 24
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985;28:412-419.
  • 25
    Karpe F, Dickmann JR, Frayn KN. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation. Diabetes 2011;60:2441-2449.
  • 26
    Brands M, Swat M, Lammers NM, Sauerwein HP, Endert E, Ackermans MT, et al. Effects of a hypercaloric diet on beta-cell responsivity in lean healthy men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013;78:217-225.
  • 27
    Erdmann J, Kallabis B, Oppel U, Sypchenko O, Wagenpfeil S, Schusdziarra V. Development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance during the early stage of weight gain. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008;294:E568-E575.
  • 28
    Tripathy D, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Groop L. Contribution of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and basal hepatic insulin sensitivity to surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2204-2210.
  • 29
    Saad A, Dalla Man C, Nandy DK, Levine JA, Bharucha AE, Rizza RA, et al. Diurnal pattern to insulin secretion and insulin action in healthy individuals. Diabetes 2012;61:2691-2700.
  • 30
    Bradley D, Conte C, Mittendorfer B, Eagon JC, Varela JE, Fabbrini E, et al. Gastric bypass and banding equally improve insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. J Clin Invest 2012;122:4667-4674.
  • 31
    Kirk E, Reeds DN, Finck BN, Mayurranjan SM, Patterson BW, Klein S. Dietary fat and carbohydrates differentially alter insulin sensitivity during caloric restriction. Gastroenterology 2009;136:1552-1560.
  • 32
    Boden G. Obesity and free fatty acids. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2008;37:635-646, viii-ix.
  • 33
    Boden G. Ceramide: a contributor to insulin resistance or an innocent bystander? Diabetologia 2008;51:1095-1096.
  • 34
    Holland WL, Brozinick JT, Wang LP, Hawkins ED, Sargent KM, Liu Y, et al. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance. Cell Metab 2007;5:167-179.
  • 35
    Itani SI, Ruderman NB, Schmieder F, Boden G. Lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is associated with changes in diacylglycerol, protein kinase C, and IkappaB-alpha. Diabetes 2002;51:2005-2011.
  • 36
    Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:11G-18G.
  • 37
    Scherer T, Lindtner C, Zielinski E, O'Hare J, Filatova N, Buettner C. Short term voluntary overfeeding disrupts brain insulin control of adipose tissue lipolysis. J Biol Chem 2012;287:33061-33069.
  • 38
    Andreotti AC, Lanzi R, Manzoni MF, Caumo A, Moreschi A, Pontiroli AE. Acute pharmacologic blockade of lipolysis normalizes nocturnal growth hormone levels and pulsatility in obese subjects. Metabolism 1994;43:1207-1213.
  • 39
    Heptulla R, Smitten A, Teague B, Tamborlane WV, Ma YZ, Caprio S. Temporal patterns of circulating leptin levels in lean and obese adolescents: relationships to insulin, growth hormone, and free fatty acids rhythmicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:90-96.
  • 40
    Miles JM, Wooldridge D, Grellner WJ, Windsor S, Isley WL, Klein S, et al. Nocturnal and postprandial free fatty acid kinetics in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects: effects of insulin sensitization therapy. Diabetes 2003;52:675-681.