• 1
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA 2012;307:491-497.
  • 2
    Smith TJ, Marriott BP, Dotson L, et al. Overweight and obesity in military personnel: Sociodemographic predictors. Obesity 2012;20:1534-1538.
  • 3
    Sanderson PW, Clemes SA, Biddle SJ. The correlates and treatment of obesity in military populations: A systematic review. Obesity Facts 2011;4:229-237.
  • 4
    Bray RM, Rae Olmsted KL, Williams J, Sanchez RP, Hartzell M. Progress toward Healthy People 2000 objectives among U.S. Military personnel. Prev Med 2006;42:390-396.
  • 5
    Davis BE, Blaschke GS, Stafford EM. Military children, families, and communities: Supporting those who serve. Pediatrics 2012;129(Suppl 1):S3-S10.
  • 6
    Christeson W, Taggart A, Mesner-Zidell S. Too Fat to Fight: Retired Military Leaders Want Junk Food out of America's Schools. Washington, DC: Mission: Readiness; 2010. Available from:
  • 7
    Division of Preventive Medicine. 2011 Annual Report. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research: Silver Spring, 2011.
  • 8
    Kress AM, Hartzel MC, Peterson MR. Burden of disease associated with overweight and obesity among U.S. Military retirees and their dependents, aged 38–64, 2003. Prev Med 2005;41:63-69.
  • 9
    Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evalutation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Bethesda, September 2008. 98-4083.
  • 10
    Dall TM, Zhang Y, Chen YJ, et al. Cost associated with being overweight and with obesity, high alcohol consumption, and tobacco use within the Military Health System's TRICARE prime-enrolled population. AJHP 2007;22:120-139.
  • 11
    Almond N, Kahwati L, Kinsinger L, Porterfield D. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. Military veterans. Mil Med 2008;173:544-549.
  • 12
    Koepsell TD, Littman AJ, Forsberg CW. Obesity, overweight, and their life course trajectories in veterans and non-veterans. Obesity 2012;20:434-439.
  • 13
    Department of Veterans Affairs. VA Benefits and Health Care Utilization Statistics at a Glance. Veterans Benefits Administration and Veterans Health Administration, US Department of Veterans Affairs: Washington DC, 2012.
  • 14
    Maciejewski ML, Maynard C. Diabetes-related utilization and costs for inpatient and outpatient services in the Veterans Administration. Diabetes Care 2004;27(Suppl 2):B69-B73.
  • 15
    Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Diagnoses of Overweight/Obesity, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998–2010. Department of Defense: Silver Spring, 2011. Report No.: 2152–8217 (Electronic) 2152–8217 (Linking) Contract No.: 1.
  • 16
    Bray RM, Pemberton MR, Hourani LL, et al. 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International; 2009.
  • 17
    Gattis VM. Obesity: A Threat to National Security? U.S. Army War College: Carlisle, 2011.
  • 18
    Department of Defense Instruction. DoD Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programs Procedures. Department of Defense Instruction: Washington DC, 2002.
  • 19
    Heinrich KM, Jitnarin N, Suminski RR, et al. Obesity classification in military personnel: a comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements. Mil Med 2008;173:67-73.
  • 20
    Department of Defense Directive. DoD Physical Fitness and Body Fat Program. Department of Defense Directive: Washingyon DC, 2004.
  • 21
    Harrow JJ, Cordoves RI, Hulette RB. Attitudes toward intentional weight loss and dietary behavior among U.S. Army Reserve soldiers during annual training. Mil Med 2006;171:678-683.
  • 22
    Harrison L, Brennan M, Shilanskis CM. Physical Activity Patterns and Satisfaction with Fitness Facilities Among Military Members and their Families. Scranton, PA: Military Family Institute of Marywood University; 1998.
  • 23
    Bagchi A, Bencio K, Kim J, Lee M, Schone E. Healthy Care Survey of DoD Beneficiaries 2007 Annual Report. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.: TRICARE: Washington DC, 2007.
  • 24
    Kleykamp MA. College, jobs, or the military? Enlistment during a time of war. Soc Sci Quart 2006;87:272-290.
  • 25
    Koepsell TD, Forsberg CW, Littman AJ. Obesity, overweight, and weight control practices in U.S. Veterans. Prev Med 2009;48:267-271.
  • 26
    Nelson KM. The burden of obesity among a national probability sample of veterans. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:915-919.
  • 27
    Pflanz SE, Sonnek S. Work stress in the military: prevalence, causes, and relationship to emotional health. Mil Med 2002;167:877-882.
  • 28
    Wells TS, LeardMann CA, Fortuna SO, et al. A prospective study of depression following combat deployment in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Am J Public Health 2010;100:90-99.
  • 29
    Renshaw KD, Rodrigues CS, Jones DH. Combat exposure, psychological symptoms, and marital satisfaction in National Guard soldiers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom from 2005 to 2006. Anxiety Stress Coping 2009;22:101-115.
  • 30
    Maguen S, Luxton DD, Skopp NA, et al. Killing in combat, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Iraq War veterans. J Anxiety Disord 2011;25:563-567.
  • 31
    Karney B, Crown J. Families Under Stress. An Assessment of Data, Theory, and Research on Marriage and Divorce in the Military. Rand Corportation, National Defense Research Institute; 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2013. At:
  • 32
    Mental Health Advisory Team VI. Operation Iraqi Freedom 07–09 Report. Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Corps-Iraq, Office of the Surgeon General United States Army Medical Command: Washington DC, VI; 2009.
  • 33
    Seal KH, Metzler TJ, Gima KS, Bertenthal D, Maguen S, Marmar CR. Trends and risk factors for mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs health care, 2002–2008. Am J Public Health 2009;99:1651-1658.
  • 34
    Chandola T, Brunner E, Marmot M. Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: Prospective study. BMJ 2006;332:521-525.
  • 35
    Robbins AS, Chao SY, Baumgartner N, Runyan CN, Oordt MS, Fonseca VP. A low-intensity intervention to prevent annual weight gain in active duty Air Force members. Mil Med 2006;171:556-561.
  • 36
    Peterson AL, Helton J. Smoking cessation and weight gain in the military. Mil Med 2000;165:536-538.
  • 37
    Russ CR, Fonseca VP, Peterson AL, Blackman LR, Robbins AS. Weight gain as a barrier to smoking cessation among military personnel. AJHP 2001;16:79-84.
  • 38
    Anderson DA, Shapiro JR, Lundgren JD, Spataro LE, Frye CA. Self-reported dietary restraint is associated with elevated levels of salivary cortisol. Appetite 2002;38:13-17.
  • 39
    Military installation guide. 2007; Available from: [Cited September 7, 2007].
  • 40
    Seibert C. The Role of Food Proximity in Eating Behavior and Body Mass Index Among Air Force Personnel [Doctoral Dissertation]. Bethesda, MD: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; 2009.
  • 41
    Eaton KM, Hoge CW, Messer SC, et al. Prevalence of mental health problems, treatment need, and barriers to care among primary care-seeking spouses of military service members involved in Iraq and Afghanistan deployments. Mil Med 2008;173:1051-1056.
  • 42
    Haas DM, Pazdernik LA. A cross-sectional survey of stressors for postpartum women during wartime in a military medical facility. Mil Med 2006;171:1020-1023.
  • 43
    Institute of Medicine. Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: Demographics and Impact. Returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan: Preliminary assessment of readjustment needs of veterans, service members, and their families. Committee on the Initial Assessment of Readjustment Needs of Military Personnel, Veterans, and Their Families; Board on the Health of Selected Populations. The National Academies Press: Washington DC, 2010.
  • 44
    Jensen PS, Martin D, Watanabe H. Children's response to parental separation during Operation Desert Storm. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35:433-441.
  • 45
    Flake EM, Davis BE, Johnson PL, Middleton LS. The psychosocial effects of deployment on military children. JDBP 2009;30:271-278.
  • 46
    Chartrand MM, Frank DA, White LF, Shope TR. Effect of parents' wartime deployment on the behavior of young children in military families. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008;162:1009-1014.
  • 47
    Gundersen C, Mahatmya D, Garasky S, Lohman B. Linking psychosocial stressors and childhood obesity. Obes Rev 2010;12:e54-e63.
  • 48
    Antczak AJ, Brininger TL. Diagnosed eating disorders in the U.S. Military: a nine year review. Eat Disord 2008;16:363-377.
  • 49
    Lauder TD, Williams MV, Campbell CS, Davis GD, Sherman RA. Abnormal eating behaviors in military women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1265-1271.
  • 50
    Peterson AL, Talcott GW, Kelleher WJ, Smith SD. Bulimic weight-loss behaviors in military versus civilian weight-management programs. Mil Med 1995;160:616-620.
  • 51
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Yanovski SZ. Eating disorder or disordered eating? Non-normative eating patterns in obese individuals. Obes Res 2004;12:1361-1366.
  • 52
    Stice E, Cameron RP, Killen JD, Hayward C, Taylor CB. Naturalistic weight-reduction efforts prospectively predict growth in relative weight and onset of obesity among female adolescents. J Consult Clin Psych 1999;67:967-974.
  • 53
    Brownell KD, Rodin J. Medical, metabolic, and psychological effects of weight cycling. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1325-1330.
  • 54
    McNulty PA. Prevalence and contributing factors of eating disorder behaviors in a population of female Navy nurses. Mil Med 1997;162:703-706.
  • 55
    Warner C, Matuszak T, Rachal J, Flynn J, Grieger TA. Disordered eating in entry-level military personnel. Mil Med 2007;172:147-151.
  • 56
    Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:348-358.
  • 57
    McNulty PA. Prevalence and contributing factors of eating disorder behaviors in active duty service women in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. Mil Med 2001;166:53-58.
  • 58
    McNulty PA. Prevalence and contributing factors of eating disorder behaviors in active duty Navy men. Mil Med 1997;162:753-758.
  • 59
    Jacobson IG, Smith TC, Smith B, et al. Disordered eating and weight changes after deployment: Longitudinal assessment of a large US Military cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:415-427.
  • 60
    Luce KH, Crowther JH, Pole M. Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): Norms for undergraduate women. Int J Eat Disord 2008;41:273-276.
  • 61
    Young-Hyman D, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Yanovski SZ, et al. Psychological status and weight-related distress in overweight or at-risk-for-overweight children. Obesity 2006;14:2249-2258.
  • 62
    Goodman E, Whitaker RC. A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 2002;110:497-504.
  • 63
    Waasdorp CE, Caboot JB, Robinson CA, Abraham AA, Adelman WP. Screening military dependent adolescent females for disordered eating. Mil Med 2007;172:962-967.
  • 64
    Tanofsky-Kraff M, Cohen ML, Yanovski SZ, et al. A prospective study of psychological predictors of body fat gain among children at high risk for adult obesity. Pediatrics 2006;117:1203-1209.
  • 65
    Field AE, Sonneville KR, Micali N, et al. Prospective association of common eating disorders and adverse outcomes. Pediatrics 2012;130:e289-e295.
  • 66
    Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Kendler KS. Genetic and environmental contributions to obesity and binge eating. Int J Eat Disord 2003;33:293-298.
  • 67
    Gimbel RW, Pangaro L, Barbour G. America's “undiscovered” laboratory for health services research. Med Care 2010;48:751-756.
  • 68
    Department of Defense. Evaluation of the TRICARE Program: Fiscal Year 2011 Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense; 2011.
  • 69
    U.S. Department of Defense. 2011 MHS Stakeholder Report. U.S. Department of Defense: Washington DC, 2011.
  • 70
    Jackson JL, Strong J, Cheng EY, Meyer G. Patients, diagnoses, and procedures in a military internal medicine clinic: Comparison with civilian practices. Mil Med 1999;164:194-197.
  • 71
    Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Diagnoses of Overweight/Obesity, Active Component. U.S. Armed Forces, 1998–2008. Medical Services Monthly Report. Department of Defense: Silver Spring, 2009. pp. 2-6.
  • 72
    Kahwati L, Lance T, Jones K, Kinsinger L. Re-aim evaluation of the Veterans Health Administration's MOVE! weight management program. TBM 2011;1:551-560.
  • 73
    Stewart T, Han H, Allen RH, et al. H.E.A.L.T.H.: efficacy of an internet/population-based behavioral weight management program for the U.S. Army. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2011;5:178-187.
  • 74
    Newton RL Jr, Han H, Stewart TM, Ryan DH, Williamson DA. Efficacy of a pilot internet-based weight management program (H.E.A.L.T.H.) and longitudinal physical fitness data in Army Reserve soldiers. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2011;5:1255-1262.
  • 75
    Terre L, Hunter C, Poston WS, Haddock CK, Stewart SA. Treatment of obesity in the primary care setting: Are we there yet? Eat Disord2007;15:135-143.
  • 76
    Hunter CM, Peterson AL, Alvarez LM, et al. Weight management using the internet a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med 2008;34:119-126.
  • 77
    Fuertes JN, Mislowack A, Bennett J, et al. The physician-patient working alliance. Patient Educ Couns 2007;66:29-36.
  • 78
    Jerant AF, vonFriederichs-Fitzwater MM, Moore M. Patients' perceived barriers to active self-management of chronic conditions. Patient Educ Couns 2005;57:300-307.
  • 79
    Malavolti M, Battistini NC, Dugoni M, Bagni B, Bagni I, Pietrobelli A. Effect of intense military training on body composition. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22:503-508.
  • 80
    Sumithran P, Proietto J. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss. Clin Sci (Lond) 2013;124:231-241.