Assessment of satiety depends on the energy density and portion size of the test meal
Funding agencies: This research was supported by NIH grant DK059853.
Disclosure: The authors declared no conflict of interest.
Author contributions: The authors' responsibilities were as follows—RAW collected the data, RAW and LSR analyzed the data, and BJR had primary responsibility for final content. All authors were involved in designing the experiment and writing the manuscript and had approval of the final manuscript.
Foods that enhance satiety can reduce overconsumption, but the availability of large portions of energy-dense foods may counter their benefits. The influence on meal energy intake of varying the energy density and portion size of food consumed after a preload shown to promote satiety was tested.
Design and Methods
In a crossover design, 46 women were served lunch on six days. On four days they ate a compulsory salad (300 g, 0.33 kcal/g). Unlike previous studies, instead of varying the preload, the subsequent test meal of pasta was varied between standard and increased levels of both energy density (1.25 or 1.66 kcal/g) and portion size (450 or 600 g). On two control days a salad was not served.
Following the salad, the energy density and portion size of the test meal independently affected meal energy intake (both P < 0.02). Serving the higher-energy-dense pasta increased test meal intake by 153 ± 19 kcal and serving the larger portion of pasta increased test meal intake by 40 ± 16 kcal. Compared to having no salad, consuming the salad decreased test meal intake by 123 ± 18 kcal.
The effect of satiety-enhancing foods can be influenced by the energy density and portion size of other foods at the meal.