• 1
    Prentice AM. Early influences on human energy regulation: Thrifty genotypes and thrifty phenotypes. Physiol Behav 2005;86:640-645. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.08.055.
  • 2
    Neish AS. Microbes in gastrointestinal health and disease. Gastroenterology 2009;136:65-80. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.10.080.
  • 3
    Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444:1022-1023. doi: 10.1038/4441022a.
  • 4
    Kalliomaki M, Carmen Collado M, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:534-538.
  • 5
    Vrieze A, Van Nood E, Holleman F, et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology 2012;143:913-6.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.06.031; 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.06.031.
  • 6
    Roberfroid M. Prebiotics: The concept revisited. J Nutr 2007;137(3 Suppl 2):830S-837S.
  • 7
    Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Prebiotic fibres dose-dependently increase satiety hormones and alter bacteroidetes and firmicutes in lean and obese JCR:LA-cp rats. Br J Nutr 2012;107:601-613. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511003163.
  • 8
    Delzenne NM. Oligosaccharides: State of the art. Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:177-182.
  • 9
    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria. Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. 2001.
  • 10
    Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Backhed F, Cani PD. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: Effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2011;7:639-646. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.126; 10.1038/nrendo.2011.126.
  • 11
    Kadooka Y, Sato M, Imaizumi K, et al. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055) in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:636-643. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.19.
  • 12
    Kondo S, Xiao JZ, Satoh T, et al. Antiobesity effects of bifidobacterium breve strain B-3 supplementation in a mouse model with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2010;74:1656-1661.
  • 13
    Chen J, Wang R, Li XF, Wang RL. Bifidobacterium adolescentis supplementation ameliorates visceral fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity in an experimental model of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr 2012;107:1429-1434. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511004491.
  • 14
    Andreasen AS, Larsen N, Pedersen-Skovsgaard T, et al. Effects of lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects. Br J Nutr 2010;104:1831-1838. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510002874.
  • 15
    Yin Y-, Yu Q-, Fu N, Liu X-, Lu F-. Effects of four bifidobacteria on obesity in high-fat diet induced rats. World J Gastroenterol 2010;16:3394-3401.
  • 16
    Liong MT, Dunshea FR, Shah NP. Effects of a synbiotic containing lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 on plasma lipid profiles and morphology of erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic pigs on high- and low-fat diets. Br J Nutr 2007;98:736-744. doi: 10.1017/S0007114507747803.
  • 17
    Lesniewska V, Rowland I, Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM, Naughton PJ. Effect on components of the intestinal microflora and plasma neuropeptide levels of feeding lactobacillus delbrueckii, bifidobacterium lactis, and inulin to adult and elderly rats. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72:6533-6538. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00915-06.
  • 18
    Cani PD, Dewever C, Delzenne NM. Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Br J Nutr 2004;92:521-526.
  • 19
    Nilsson U, Nyman M, Ahrne S, Sullivan EO, Fitzgerald G. Bifidobacterium lactis bb-12 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC500 modify carboxylic acid formation in the hindgut of rats given pectin, inulin, and lactitol. J Nutr 2006;136:2175-2180.
  • 20
    Cani PD, Possemiers S, Van de Wiele T, et al. Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut 2009;58:1091-1103. doi: 10.1136/gut.2008.165886.
  • 21
    Cani PD, Bibiloni R, Knauf C, et al. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes 2008;57:1470-1481. doi: 10.2337/db07-1403.
  • 22
    Reimer RA, Grover GJ, Koetzner L, et al. Sitagliptin reduces hyperglycemia and increases satiety hormone secretion more effectively when used with a novel polysaccharide in obese zucker rats. J Nutr 2012. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.163204.
  • 23
    Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Effect of prebiotic fibre supplementation on hepatic gene expression and serum lipids: A dose-response study in JCR:LA-cp rats. Br J Nutr 2010;103:1577-1584. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509993539.
  • 24
    Delroisse JM, Boulvin AL, Parmentier I, Dauphin RD, Vandenbol M, Portetelle D. Quantification of bifidobacterium spp. and lactobacillus spp. in rat fecal samples by real-time PCR. Microbiol Res 2008;163:663-670.
  • 25
    Louie TJ, Cannon K, Byrne B, et al. Fidaxomicin preserves the intestinal microbiome during and after treatment of clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and reduces both toxin reexpression and recurrence of CDI. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55(Suppl 2):S132-S142. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis338; 10.1093/cid/cis338.
  • 26
    Savard P, Lamarche B, Paradis M-, Thiboutot H, Laurin E, Roy D. Impact of bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Int J Food Microbiol 2011;149:50-57.
  • 27
    Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Differential secretion of satiety hormones with progression of obesity in JCR:LA-corpulent rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:736-742. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.128.
  • 28
    Nolan CJ, Damm P, Prentki M. Type 2 diabetes across generations: From pathophysiology to prevention and management. The Lancet 2011;378:169-181. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60614-4.
  • 29
    Daubioul C, Rousseau N, Demeure R, et al. Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese zucker fa/fa rats. J Nutr 2002;132:967-973.
  • 30
    Cani PD, Hoste S, Guiot Y, Delzenne NM. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates promote L-cell differentiation in the proximal colon of rats. Br J Nutr 2007;98:32-37. doi: 10.1017/S0007114507691648.
  • 31
    Kang JH, Yun SI, Park HO. Effects of lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 on body weight and adipose tissue mass in diet-induced overweight rats. J Microbiol 2010;48:712-714. doi: 10.1007/s12275-010-0363-8.
  • 32
    Turroni F, Peano C, Pass DA, et al. Diversity of bifidobacteria within the infant gut microbiota. PLoS One 2012;7:e36957. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036957; 10.1371/journal.pone.0036957.
  • 33
    Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, et al. Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia 2007;50:2374-2383. doi: 10.1007/s00125-007-0791-0.
  • 34
    Ishizuka A, Tomizuka K, Aoki R, et al. Effects of administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis GCL2505 on defecation frequency and bifidobacterial microbiota composition in humans. J Biosci Bioeng 2012;113:587-591. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2011.12.016.
  • 35
    Ley RE, Backhed F, Turnbaugh P, Lozupone CA, Knight RD, Gordon JI. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:11070-11075. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0504978102.
  • 36
    Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V, Mardis ER, Gordon JI. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006;444:1027-1031. doi: 10.1038/nature05414.
  • 37
    Kahn SE. The relative contributions of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2003;46:3-19. doi: 10.1007/s00125-002-1009-0.
  • 38
    Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1751-1759. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27465.
  • 39
    Lu YC, Yeh WC, Ohashi PS. LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Cytokine 2008;42:145-151. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2008.01.006.
  • 40
    Akash MS, Rehman K, Chen S. Role of inflammatory mechanisms in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Cell Biochem 2012. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24402; 10.1002/jcb.24402.