Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying nonresponders to an intensive lifestyle intervention
Disclosure: Dr. Cheskin reported being the chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for Medifast, Inc. Dr. West is on the Scientific Advisory Board to Jenny Craig, Inc. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Funding agencies: This study is supported by the Department of Health and Human Services through the following cooperative agreements from the National Institutes of Health: DK57136, DK57149, DK56990, DK57177, DK57171, DK57151, DK57182, DK57131, DK57002, DK57078, DK57154, DK57178, DK57219, DK57008, DK57135, and DK56992. The following federal agencies have contributed support: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of Nursing Research; National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; NIH Office of Research on Women's Health; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The Indian Health Service (I.H.S.) provided personnel, medical oversight, and use of facilities. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the I.H.S. or other funding sources. Additional support was received from The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Bayview General Clinical Research Center (M01RR02719); the Massachusetts General Hospital Mallinckrodt General Clinical Research Center (M01RR01066); the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center General Clinical Research Center (M01RR00051) and Clinical Nutrition Research Unit (P30 DK48520); the University of Tennessee at Memphis General Clinical Research Center (M01RR0021140); the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center (M01RR000056 44) and NIH grant (DK 046204); the VA Puget Sound Health Care System Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs; and the Frederic C. Bartter General Clinical Research Center (M01RR01346).
Author contributions: RN and PH had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. RJ, AK, FP, DSW, RW, LC contributed to the study design, GE-H, JN collected the data or assisted with the intervention, PH and RN performed the data analyses, and JU wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to the discussion and interpretation of the data and reviewed and edited the manuscript.
Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. The utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes was examined.
Participants included 2327 adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI:35.8 ± 6.0) randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) of the Look AHEAD trial. ILI included weekly behavioral sessions designed to increase physical activity and reduce caloric intake. 1-month, 2-month, and 1-year weight changes were calculated.
Participants failing to achieve a ≥2% weight loss at Month 1 were 5.6 (95% CI:4.5, 7.0) times more likely to also not achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1, compared to those losing ≥2% initially. These odds were increased to 11.6 (95% CI:8.6, 15.6) when using a 3% weight loss threshold at Month 2. Only 15.2% and 8.2% of individuals failing to achieve the ≥2% and ≥3% thresholds at Months 1 and 2, respectively, go on to achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1.
Given the association between initial and 1-year weight loss, the first few months of treatment may be an opportune time to identify those who are unsuccessful and utilize rescue efforts.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953