• 1
    Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press 2011.
  • 2
    Gibbons GH, Harold JG, Jessup M, et al. The next steps in developing clinical practice guidelines for prevention. Circulation 2013;128:1716-7.
  • 3
    Gibbons GH, Shurin SB, Mensah GA, et al. Refocusing the agenda on cardiovascular guidelines: an announcement from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:1396-8.
  • 4
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009-2010. NCHS Data Brief 2012:1-8.
  • 5
    Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults—The Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health. Obes Res 1998;6 Suppl 2:51S-209S.
  • 6
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012;307:491-7.
  • 7
    Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW, et al. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009;28:w822-31.
  • 8
    Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, D'Agostino RB Sr, et al. 2013 ACC/ AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 12 [E-pub ahead of print]; doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2 013.11.005.
  • 9
    Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7 [E-pub ahead of print]; doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.003.
  • 10
    Stone NJ, Robinson J, Lichtenstein AH, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Nov 7 [E-pub ahead of print]; doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.002.
  • 11
    Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. WMJ 1998;97:20-1,24-5,27-37.
  • 12
    Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WCS, et al. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term hypertension outcomes: a systematic review. Hypertension 2005;45:1035-41.
  • 13
    Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WCS, et al. Weight loss in obese diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and long-term diabetes out-comes-a systematic review. Diabetes Obes Metab 2004;6:85-94.
  • 14
    Avenell A, Broom J, Brown TJ, et al. Systematic review ofthe long-term effects and economic consequences of treatments for obesity and implications for health improvement. Health Technol Assess 2004;8:iii-iv, 1-182.
  • 15
    Avenell A, Brown TJ, McGee MA, et al. What interventions should we add to weight reducing diets in adults with obesity?. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of adding drug therapy, exercise, behaviour therapy or combinations of these interventions. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17:293-316.
  • 16
    Avenell A, Brown TJ, McGee MA, et al. What are the long-term benefits of weight reducing diets in adults?. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17:317-35.
  • 17
    Douketis JD, Macie C, Thabane L, et al. Systematic review of long-term weight loss studies in obese adults: clinical significance and applicability to clinical practice. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005;29:1153-67.
  • 18
    Galani C, Schneider H. Prevention and treatment of obesity with lifestyle interventions: review and meta-analysis. Int J Public Health 2007;52:348-59.
  • 19
    Horvath K, Jeitler K, Siering U, et al. Long-term effects of weight-reducing interventions in hypertensive patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:571-80.
  • 20
    Hutton B, Fergusson D. Changes in body weight and serum lipid profile in obese patients treated with orlistat in addition to a hypocaloric diet: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1461-8.
  • 21
    Johansson K, Sundstrom J, Neovius K, et al. Long-term changes in blood pressure following orlistat and sibutramine treatment: a meta- analysis. Obes Rev 2010;11:777-91.
  • 22
    Look AHEAD Research Group, Pi-Sunyer X, Blackburn G, et al. Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1374-83.
  • 23
    Look AHEAD Research Group, Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1566-75.
  • 24
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, et al. Long-term non-pharmacological weight loss interventions for adults with predia- betes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;CD005270.
  • 25
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, et al. Long-term non-pharmacologic weight loss interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;CD004095.
  • 26
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, et al. Pharmacotherapy for weight loss in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;CD004096.
  • 27
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, et al. Long-term effectiveness of lifestyle and behavioral weight loss interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2004;117:762-74.
  • 28
    Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DCW. Long-term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;CD004094.
  • 29
    Pirozzo S, Summerbell C, Cameron C, et al. Should we recommend low-fat diets for obesity? Obes Rev 2003;4:83-90.
  • 30
    Poobalan AS, Aucott LS, Smith WCS, et al. Long-term weight loss effects on all cause mortality in overweight/obese populations. Obes Rev 2007;8:503-13.
  • 31
    Poobalan A, Aucott L, Smith WCS, et al. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term lipid outcomes-a systematic review. Obes Rev 2004;5:43-50.
  • 32
    Rucker D, Padwal R, Li SK, et al. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis. BMJ 2007;335:1194-9.
  • 33
    Shaw K, Gennat H, O'Rourke P, et al. Exercise for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;CD003817.
  • 34
    Siebenhofer A, Horvath K, Jeitler K, et al. Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;CD007654.
  • 35
    Thomas DE, Elliott EJ, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low gly-caemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;CD005105.
  • 36
    Tuah NA, Amiel C, Qureshi S, et al. Transtheoretical model for dietary and physical exercise modification in weight loss management for overweight and obese adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;CD008066.
  • 37
    Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1481-6.
  • 38
    Witham MD, Avenell A. Interventions to achieve long-term weight loss in obese older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2010;39:176-84.
  • 39
    Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DCW. Long-term pharmacotherapy for overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:1437-46.
  • 40
    Lenz M, Richter T, Miihlhauser I. The morbidity and mortality associated with overweight and obesity in adulthood: a systematic review. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009;106:641-8.
  • 41
    Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Wormser D, Kaptoge S, et al. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet 2011;377:1085-95.
  • 42
    Prospective Studies Collaboration, Whitlock G, Lewington S, et al. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009;373:1083-96.
  • 43
    Skov AR, Toubro S, Bulow J, et al. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:1170-7.
  • 44
    Skov AR, Toubro S, Rann B, et al. Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:528-36.
  • 45
    Skov AR, Haulrik N, Toubro S, et al. Effect of protein intake on bone mineralization during weight loss: a 6-month trial. Obes Res 2002;10:432-8.
  • 46
    Torgerson JS, Agren L, Sjostrom L. Effects on body weight ofstrict or liberal adherence to an initial period of VLCD treatment. A randomised, one-year clinical trial ofobese subjects. Int JObes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:190-7.
  • 47
    Ashley JM, St Jeor ST, Perumean-Chaney S, et al. Meal replacements in weight intervention. Obes Res 2001;9 Suppl 4:312S-20S.
  • 48
    Poppitt SD, Keogh GF, Prentice AM, et al. Long-term effects ofad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on body weight and serum lipids in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:11-20.
  • 49
    Wien MA, Sabate JM, Ikle DN, et al. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:1365-72.
  • 50
    Due A, Toubro S, Skov AR, et al. Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:1283-90.
  • 51
    Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR, et al. Effects ofa low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women. Nutrition 2004;20:738-46.
  • 52
    Wadden TA, Foster GD, Sarwer DB, et al. Dieting and the development of eating disorders in obese women: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:560-8.
  • 53
    Lejeune MPGM, Kovacs EMR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Additional protein intake limits weight regain after weight loss in humans. Br J Nutr 2005;93:281-9.
  • 54
    McAuley KA, Hopkins CM, Smith KJ, et al. Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women. Diabetologia 2005;48:8-16.
  • 55
    Thompson WG, Rostad Holdman N, Janzow DJ, et al. Effect of energy-reduced diets high in dairy products and fiber on weight loss in obese adults. Obes Res 2005;13:1344-53.
  • 56
    Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, et al. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at 6 months—PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:2007-17.
  • 57
    Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, et al. The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:2200-9.
  • 58
    Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK, et al. Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1023-30.
  • 59
    Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low- glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 2007;297:2092-102.
  • 60
    Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:2276-81.
  • 61
    Esposito K, Maiorino MI, Ciotola M, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on the need for antihyperglycemic drug therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:306-14.
  • 62
    Frisch S, Zittermann A, Berthold HK, et al. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2009;8:36.
  • 63
    Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 2009;360:859-73.
  • 64
    Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:147-57.
  • 65
    Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, et al. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:588-96.
  • 66
    Harris JA, Benedict FG. A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Carnegie Institute of Washington publication 279. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington; 1919.
  • 67
    Mifflin MD, St Jeor ST, Hill LA, et al. A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:241-7.
  • 68
    Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements. Energy and Protein Requirements: report of Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1985:1-206.
  • 69
    Subak LL, Wing R, West DS, et al. Weight loss to treat urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women. N Engl J Med 2009;360:481-90.
  • 70
    Svetkey LP, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, et al. Comparison ofstrategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;299:1139-48.
  • 71
    Tate DF, Jackvony EH, Wing RR. Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:1833-6.
  • 72
    Tate DF, Jackvony EH, Wing RR. A randomized trial comparing human e-mail counseling, computer-automated tailored counseling, and no counseling in an Internet weight loss program. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1620-5.
  • 73
    Tate DF, Jeffery RW, Sherwood NE, et al. Long-term weight losses associated with prescription of higher physical activity goals. Are higher levels of physical activity protective against weight regain? Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:954-9.
  • 74
    Teixeira PJ, Silva MN, Coutinho SR, et al. Mediators ofweight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:725-35.
  • 75
    ter Bogt NCW, Bemelmans WJE, Beltman FW, et al. Preventing weight gain: one-year results of a randomized lifestyle intervention. Am J Prev Med 2009;37:270-7.
  • 76
    Truby H, Baic S, deLooy A, et al. Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC “diet trials”. BMJ 2006;332:1309-14.
  • 77
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1343-50.
  • 78
    Uusitupa M, Louheranta A, Lindstrom J, et al. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Br J Nutr 2000;83 Suppl 1:S137-42.
  • 79
    Wadden TA, Neiberg RH, Wing RR, et al. Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19:1987-98.
  • 80
    Wadden TA, Volger S, Sarwer DB, et al. A two-year randomized trial of obesity treatment in primary care practice. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1969-79.
  • 81
    West DS, Gorin AA, Subak LL, et al. A motivation-focused weight loss maintenance program is an effective alternative to a skill-based approach. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011;35:259-69.
  • 82
    West DS, Elaine Prewitt T, Bursac Z, et al. Weight loss of black, white, and Hispanic men and women in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:1413-20.
  • 83
    West DS, DiLillo V, Bursac Z, et al. Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1081-7.
  • 84
    Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, et al. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). TONE Collaborative Research Group. JAMA 1998;279:839-46.
  • 85
    Wing RR, Tate DF, Gorin AA, et al. A self-regulation program for maintenance of weight loss. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1563-71.
  • 86
    Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, et al. Translating lifestyle intervention to practice in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1570-6.
  • 87
    Womble LG, Wadden TA, McGuckin BG, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a commercial internet weight loss program. Obes Res 2004;12:1011-8.
  • 88
    Andersen RE, Wadden TA, Bartlett SJ, et al. Effects of lifestyle activity vs structured aerobic exercise in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA 1999;281:335-40.
  • 89
    Appel LJ, Clark JM, Yeh H-C, et al. Comparative effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in clinical practice. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1959-68.
  • 90
    Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A, Gullette EC, et al. Exercise and weight loss reduce blood pressure in men and women with mild hypertension: effects on cardiovascular, metabolic, and hemody- namic functioning. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1947-58.
  • 91
    Borg P, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Fogelholm M, et al. Effects of walking or resistance training on weight loss maintenance in obese, middle-aged men: a randomized trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:676-83.
  • 92
    Byrne NM, Meerkin JD, Laukkanen R, et al. Weight loss strategies for obese adults: personalized weight management program vs. standard care. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:1777-88.
  • 93
    Christian JG, Bessesen DH, Byers TE, et al. Clinic-based support to help overweight patients with type 2 diabetes increase physical activity and lose weight. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:141-6.
  • 94
    Cussler EC, Teixeira PJ, Going SB, et al. Maintenance of weight loss in overweight middle-aged women through the Internet. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:1052-60.
  • 95
    Dale KS, Mann JI, McAuley KA, et al. Sustainability of lifestyle changes following an intensive lifestyle intervention in insulin resistant adults: Follow-up at 2-years. Asia Pac JClin Nutr 2009;18:114-20.
  • 96
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, Knowler WC, Fowler SE, et al. 10-year follow-up ofdiabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet 2009;374:1677-86.
  • 97
    Eriksson J, Lindstrom J, Valle T, et al. Prevention of Type II diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) in Finland. Study design and 1-year interim report on the feasibility of the lifestyle intervention programme. Diabetologia 1999;42:793-801.
  • 98
    Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:1799-804.
  • 99
    Esposito K, Giugliano F, Di Palo C, et al. Effect oflifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:2978-84.
  • 100
    Fitzgibbon ML, Stolley MR, Schiffer L, et al. Obesity reduction black intervention trial (ORBIT): 18-month results. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:2317-25.
  • 101
    Fogelholm M, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Nenonen A, et al. Effects of walking training on weight maintenance after a very-low-energy diet in premenopausal obese women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2177-84.
  • 102
    Foster GD, Borradaile KE, Sanders MH, et al. A randomized study on the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with type 2 diabetes: the Sleep AHEAD study. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:1619-26.
  • 103
    Gold BC, Burke S, Pintauro S, et al. Weight loss on the web: A pilot study comparing a structured behavioral intervention to a commercial program. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:155-64.
  • 104
    Greaves CJ, Middlebrooke A, O'Loughlin L, et al. Motivational interviewing for modifying diabetes risk: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract 2008;58:535-40.
  • 105
    Haapala I, Barengo NC, Biggs S, et al. Weightlossbymobilephone: a 1-year effectiveness study. Public Health Nuttr 2009;12:2382-91.
  • 106
    Harvey-Berino J, Pintauro S, Buzzell P, et al. Effect of internet support on the long-term maintenance of weight loss. Obes Res 2004;12:320-9.
  • 107
    Harvey-Berino J, West D, Krukowski R, et al. Internet delivered behavioral obesity treatment. Prev Med 2010;51:123-8.
  • 108
    Heshka S, Greenway F, Anderson JW, et al. Self-help weight loss versus a structured commercial program after 26 weeks: a randomized controlled study. Am J Med 2000;109:282-7.
  • 109
    Heshka S, Anderson JW, Atkinson RL, et al. Weight loss with self- help compared with a structured commercial program: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:1792-8.
  • 110
    Hunter CM, Peterson AL, Alvarez LM, et al. Weight management using the internet a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med 2008;34:119-26.
  • 111
    Jakicic JM, Winters C, Lang W, et al. Effects of intermittent exercise and use of home exercise equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness in overweight women: a randomized trial. JAMA 1999;282:1554-60.
  • 112
    Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Gallagher KI, et al. Effect of exercise duration and intensity on weight loss in overweight, sedentary women: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;290:1323-30.
  • 113
    Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Lang W, et al. Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1550-9; discussion 1559-60.
  • 114
    Kaukua J, Pekkarinen T, Sane T, et al. Health-related quality oflife in WHO class II-III obese men losing weight with very-low-energy diet and behaviour modification: a randomised clinical trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:487-95.
  • 115
    Kaukua J, Pekkarinen T, Sane T, et al. Sex hormones and sexual function in obese men losing weight. Obes Res 2003;11:689-94.
  • 116
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence oftype 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393-403.
  • 117
    Kulzer B, Hermanns N, Gorges D, et al. Prevention of diabetes self-management program (PREDIAS): effects on weight, metabolic risk factors, and behavioral outcomes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1143-6.
  • 118
    Kumanyika SK, Espeland MA, Bahnson JL, et al. Ethnic comparison of weight loss in the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly. Obes Res 2002;10:96-106.
  • 119
    Leermakers EA, Perri MG, Shigaki CL, et al. Effects of exercise-focused versus weight-focused maintenance programs on the management of obesity. Addict Behav 1999;24:219-27.
  • 120
    Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, et al. Prevention of diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study: results from a randomized clinical trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:S108-13.
  • 121
    Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, et al. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3230-6.
  • 122
    Logue E, Sutton K, Jarjoura D, et al. Transtheoretical model-chronic disease care for obesity in primary care: a randomized trial. Obes Res 2005;13:917-27.
  • 123
    Look AHEAD Research Group, Wadden TA, West DS, et al. The Look AHEAD study: a description of the lifestyle intervention and the evidence supporting it. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:737-52.
  • 124
    Messier SP, Loeser RF, Miller GD, et al. Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:1501-10.
  • 125
    Miller GD, Nicklas BJ, Davis CC, et al. Is serum leptin related to physical function and is it modifiable through weight loss and exercise in older adults with knee osteoarthritis? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28:1383-90.
  • 126
    Morgan LM, Griffin BA, Millward DJ, et al. Comparison of the effects of four commercially available weight-loss programmes on lipid-based cardiovascular risk factors. Public Health Nutr 2009;12:799-807.
  • 127
    Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, et al. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:544-51.
  • 128
    Perri MG, Nezu AM, McKelvey WF, et al. Relapse prevention training and problem-solving therapy in the long-term management of obesity. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001;69:722-6.
  • 129
    Perri MG, Limacher MC, Durning PE, et al. Extended-care programs for weight management in rural communities: the treatment of obesity in underserved rural settings (TOURS) randomized trial. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:2347-54.
  • 130
    Rejeski WJ, Focht BC, Messier SP, et al. Obese, older adults with knee osteoarthritis: weight loss, exercise, and quality of life. Health Psychol 2002;21:419-26.
  • 131
    Rock CL, Flatt SW, Sherwood NE, et al. Effect ofa free prepared meal and incentivized weight loss program on weight loss and weight loss maintenance in obese and overweight women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;304:1803-10.
  • 132
    Rock CL, Pakiz B, Flatt SW, et al. Randomized trial of a multi- faceted commercial weight loss program. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:939-49.
  • 133
    Stenius-Aarniala B, Poussa T, Kvarnstrom J, et al. Immediate and long term effects of weight reduction in obese people with asthma: randomised controlled study. BMJ 2000;320:827-32.
  • 134
    Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, et al. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:1-11.
  • 135
    Stolley MR, Fitzgibbon ML, Schiffer L, et al. Obesity reduction black intervention trial (ORBIT): six-month results. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009;17:100-6.
  • 136
    Jeffery RW, Wing RR, Sherwood NE, et al. Physical activity and weight loss: does prescribing higher physical activity goals improve outcome? Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:684-9.
  • 137
    Miller GD, Rejeski WJ, Williamson JD, et al. The Arthritis, Diet and Activity Promotion Trial (ADAPT): design, rationale, and baseline results. Control Clin Trials 2003;24:462-80.
  • 138
    Wadden TA, West DS, Neiberg RH, et al. One-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with success. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009;17:713-22.
  • 139
    Adami GF, Papadia F, Carlini F, et al. Effect of biliopancreatic diversion on hypertension in severely obese patients. Hypertens Res 2005;28:119-23.
  • 140
    Agaba EA, Shamseddeen H, Gentles CV, et al. Laparoscopic vs open gastric bypass in the management of morbid obesity: a 7-year retrospective study of 1,364 patients from a single center. Obes Surg 2008;18:1359-63.
  • 141
    Angrisani L, Lorenzo M, Borrelli V. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: 5-year results of a prospective randomized trial. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2007;3:127-32; discussion 132-3.
  • 142
    Bessler M, Daud A, Kim T, et al. Prospective randomized trial of banded versus nonbanded gastric bypass for the super obese: early results. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2007;3:480-4; discussion 484-5.
  • 143
    Biertho L, Steffen R, Branson R, et al. Management of failed adjustable gastric banding. Surgery 2005;137:33-41.
  • 144
    Dixon JB, O'Brien PE, Playfair J, et al. Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;299:316-23.
  • 145
    Favretti F, Cadiere GB, Segato G, et al. Laparoscopic banding: selection and technique in 830 patients. Obes Surg 2002;12:385-90.
  • 146
    Favretti F, Segato G, Ashton D, et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in 1,791 consecutive obese patients: 12-year results. Obes Surg 2007;17:168-75.
  • 147
    Grunstein RR, Stenlof K, Hedner JA, et al. Two year reduction in sleep apnea symptoms and associated diabetes incidence after weight loss in severe obesity. Sleep 2007;30:703-10.
  • 148
    Ikonomidis I, Mazarakis A, Papadopoulos C, et al. Weight loss after bariatric surgery improves aortic elastic properties and left ventricular function in individuals with morbid obesity: a 3-year follow-up study. J Hypertens 2007;25:439-47.
  • 149
    Karlsson J, Sjostrom L, Sullivan M. Swedish obese subjects (SOS)— an intervention study of obesity. Two-year follow-up of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and eating behavior after gastric surgery for severe obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:113-26.
  • 150
    Karlsson J, Taft C, Ryden A, et al. Ten-year trends in health-related quality of life after surgical and conventional treatment for severe obesity: the SOS intervention study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007;31:1248-61.
  • 151
    Kehagias I, Karamanakos SN, Argentou M, et al. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus lapa-roscopic sleeve gastrectomy for the management of patients with BMI < 50 kg/m2. Obes Surg 2011;21:1650-6.
  • 152
    Larrad-Jimenez A, Dfaz-Guerra CS-C, de Cuadros Borrajo P, et al. Short-, mid- and long-term results of Larrad biliopancreatic diversion. Obes Surg 2007;17:202-10.
  • 153
    Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium, Flum DR, Belle SH, et al. Perioperative safety in the longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med 2009;361:445-54.
  • 154
    Lopez-Jimenez F, Bhatia S, Collazo-Clavell ML, et al. Safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in patients with coronary artery disease. Mayo Clin Proc 2005;80:1157-62.
  • 155
    Marinari GM, Papadia FS, Briatore L, et al. Type 2 diabetes and weight loss following biliopancreatic diversion for obesity. Obes Surg 2006;16:1440-4.
  • 156
    Mingrone G, Panunzi S, De Gaetano A, et al. Bariatric surgery versus conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1577-85.
  • 157
    Narbro K, Agren G, Jonsson E, et al. Sick leave and disability pension before and after treatment for obesity: a report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:619-24.
  • 158
    Naslund I. Lessons from the Swedish Obese Subjects Study: The effects of surgically induced weight loss on obesity comorbidity. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2005;1:140-4.
  • 159
    O'Brien PE, Dixon JB, Laurie C, et al. Treatment of mild to moderate obesity with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding or an intensive medical program: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:625-33.
  • 160
    Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, et al. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1567-76.
  • 161
    Sekhar N, Torquati A, Youssef Y, et al. A comparison of 399 open and 568 laparoscopic gastric bypasses performed during a 4-year period. Surg Endosc 2007;21:665-8.
  • 162
    Sjostrom CD. Surgery as an intervention for obesity. Results from the Swedish obese subjects study. Growth Horm IGF Res 2003;13 Suppl A:S22-6.
  • 163
    Sjostrom CD, Lissner L, Wedel H, et al. Reduction in incidence of diabetes, hypertension and lipid disturbances after intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery: the SOS Intervention Study. Obes Res 1999;7:477-84.
  • 164
    Sjostrom CD, Peltonen M, Sjostrom L. Blood pressure and pulse pressure during long-term weight loss in the obese: the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Intervention Study. Obes Res 2001;9:188-95.
  • 165
    Sjostrom CD, Peltonen M, Wedel H, et al. Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. Hypertension 2000;36:20-5.
  • 166
    Sjostrom L. Bariatric surgery and reduction in morbidity and mortality: experiences from the SOS study. Int JObes (Lond) 2008;32 Suppl 7:S93-7.
  • 167
    Sjostrom L, Gummesson A, Sjostrom CD, et al. Effects ofbariatric surgery on cancer incidence in obese patients in Sweden (Swedish Obese Subjects Study): a prospective, controlled intervention trial. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:653-62.
  • 168
    Sjostrom L, Lindroos A-K, Peltonen M, et al. Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2683-93.
  • 169
    Sjostrom L, Narbro K, Sjostrom CD, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl JMed 2007;357:741-52.
  • 170
    Steffen R, Biertho L, Ricklin T, et al. Laparoscopic Swedish adjustable gastric banding: a five-year prospective study. Obes Surg 2003;13:404-11.
  • 171
    Wolnerhanssen BK, Peters T, Kern B, et al. Predictors of outcome in treatment of morbid obesity by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: results of a prospective study of 380 patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2008;4:500-6.
  • 172
    Weber M, Muller MK, Bucher T, et al. Laparoscopic gastric bypass is superior to laparoscopic gastric banding for treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2004;240:975-82.
  • 173
    Weiner RA, Weiner S, Pomhoff I, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gas-trectomy—influence of sleeve size and resected gastric volume. Obes Surg 2007;17:1297-305.