Characterization of Microwave-Induced Electric Discharge Phenomena in Metal–Solvent Mixtures
Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012
Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 39–48, February 2012
How to Cite
Chen, W., Gutmann, B. and Kappe, C. O. (2012), Characterization of Microwave-Induced Electric Discharge Phenomena in Metal–Solvent Mixtures. ChemistryOpen, 1: 39–48. doi: 10.1002/open.201100013
- Issue online: 28 FEB 2012
- Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Received: 6 DEC 2011
- Funded Access
- Christian Doppler Research Society (Vienna, Austria)
- China Scholarship Council
- 1For recent Books on this topic, see:
- 1aMicrowaves in Organic Synthesis, 2nd ed., (Ed.: A. Loupy), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006;
- 1bMicrowave Methods in Organic Synthesis, (Eds.: M. Larhed, K Olofsson), Springer, Berlin, 2006;
- 1cMicrowaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2012;, , ,
- 1dMicrowave Heating as a Tool for Sustainable Chemistry, (Ed.: N. E. Leadbeater), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010.
- 2For a recent Review with over 900 references and a tabular survey of approximately 200 microwave chemistry Review articles, Books and Book Chapters, see:
- 5For Reviews on dielectric heating, see:
- 7Microwaves and Metals, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, 2007., ,
- 9For a survey of commercially available single- and multi-mode microwave reactors, see: Practical Microwave Synthesis for Organic Chemists: Strategies, Instruments, and Protocols, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009, pp. 45–85., , ,
- 18e-Polymers 2005, 069., , ,
- 24For a theoretical investigation of sparking of metal objects inside a microwave cavity, see: G. Shayeganrad, L. Mashhadi, Prog. Electromagn. Res. Symp. (PIERS) Proc., 2009, p. 632; PIERS, Beijing, China, March 23–27, 2009.
- 25For a general theoretical treatment of breakdown processes in an electric field, see:
- 25aHigh Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals, 2nd ed., Newnes, Oxford, 2000;, , ,
- 25bPlasma Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008.,
- 26For a discussion of breakdown processes in gases and liquids, see: Impulse Breakdown of Liquids, Springer, Berlin, 2007.,
- 27CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed., (Ed.: D. R. Lide), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010, pp. 15–46.
- 30For further details on the Monowave 300 single-mode microwave reactor (Anton Paar GmbH, Graz, Austria), see: http://www.anton-paar.com/monowave300.
- 31In general, the ability of a specific solvent to convert microwave energy into heat at a given frequency and temperature is determined by the loss tangent (tan δ), expressed as the quotient tan δ=ε′′/ε′. A reaction medium with a high tan δ value at the standard operating frequency of a microwave synthesis reactor (2.45 GHz) is required for good absorption and, consequently, for efficient heating. Solvents used for microwave synthesis can be classified as high (tan δ >0.5), medium (tan δ=0.1–0.5), and low microwave absorbing (tan δ <0.1).
- 32Supereyes B002 200× USB digital microscope (ShenZhen D&F Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, China) .
- 40The electric field in a spherical gas bubble that is immersed in a liquid of permittivity εliq is given by: Eb=3⋅E0⋅(εliq+2)−1, where E0 is the field in the liquid in the absence of the bubble. See Ref.  for details.
- 41US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Atomic Spectra Database; http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/asd.cfm.