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Keywords:

  • cancer biomarkers;
  • electrochemistry;
  • inkjet-printed arrays;
  • microfluidics;
  • sensors
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Off-line amplification: A low-cost inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle immunoarray was integrated into a microfluidic device for multiple protein determinations. The use of heavily labeled magnetic beads allows optimization either for ultrasensitive detection of biomarker proteins (low fg mL−1 levels) or for rapid 8 min assays within clinically relevant detection ranges.