Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a common clinical procedure to treat vertebral compression fractures and osteoporotic vertebral bodies. However, this operation technique is accompanied by different complications due to lack of knowledge about the complicated behaviour of bone cement within the human body. To contribute to a better understanding of the processes that take place inside the body during a vertebroplasty, a detailed model of the thermomechanical behaviour of acrylic bone cement has been developed. All important effects are covered, that influence the behaviour of acrylic bone cement during the injection in a human vertebral body. Implemented in the opensource CFD-code OpenFOAM®, first results show that this comprehensive simulation of the minimal invasive injection is capable to accurately predict the cement distribution and temperature field of acrylic bone cement inside the vertebral body. (© 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)