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Progress in the development of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels

Authors

  • David Myung,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    2. Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5080, USA
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  • Dale Waters,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
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  • Meredith Wiseman,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
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  • Pierre-Emile Duhamel,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
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  • Jaan Noolandi,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5080, USA
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  • Christopher N. Ta,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5080, USA
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  • Curtis W. Frank

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    • Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305-5025, USA.
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Abstract

Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have been the subject of extensive study since their advent in the 1960s. Hydrogel IPN systems have garnered significant attention in the last two decades due to their usefulness in biomedical applications. Of particular interest are the mechanical enhancements observed in “double network” IPN systems which exhibit nonlinear increases in fracture properties despite being composed of otherwise weak polymers. We have built upon pioneering work in this field as well as in responsive IPN systems to develop an IPN system based on end-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and loosely crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with hydrogen bond- reinforced strain-hardening behavior in water and high initial Young's moduli under physiologic buffer conditions through osmotically induced pre-stress. Uniaxial tensile tests and equilibrium swelling measurements were used to study PEG/PAA IPN hydrogels having second networks prepared with varying crosslinking and photoinitiator content, pH, solids content, and comonomers. Studies involving the addition of non-ionic comonomers and neutralization of the second network showed that template polymerization appears to be important in the formation of mechanically enhanced IPNs. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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