Development of an environmentally friendly halogen-free phosphorus–nitrogen bond flame retardant for cotton fabrics
Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012
Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Polymers for Advanced Technologies
Volume 23, Issue 12, pages 1555–1563, December 2012
How to Cite
Nguyen, T.-M. D., Chang, S., Condon, B., Uchimiya, M. and Fortier, C. (2012), Development of an environmentally friendly halogen-free phosphorus–nitrogen bond flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Polym. Adv. Technol., 23: 1555–1563. doi: 10.1002/pat.3029
- Issue published online: 14 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 4 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Received: 22 JUN 2011
- flame retardant;
- flammability test;
- thermal degradation
A novel flame retardant diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (CN-3) containing phosphorous and nitrogen was prepared. Its chemical structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-, 13C-, and 31P-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Print cloth and twill fabrics were treated with CN-3 to achieve different levels of add-on (7–22 wt% add-ons for print cloth and 3–18 wt% add-ons for twill). Thermogravimetric analysis, vertical flame test, and limiting oxygen index (LOI) were performed on the treated cotton fabrics and showed promising results. When the treated print cloth and twill fabric samples were tested using the vertical flame test (ASTM D6413-08), we observed that the ignited fabrics self-extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated higher add-ons fabrics were neither consumed by flame nor produced glowing ambers upon self-extinguishing. LOI (ASTM 2863–09) was used to determine the effectiveness of the flame retardant on the treated fabrics. LOI values increased from 18 vol% oxygen in nitrogen for untreated print cloth and twill fabrics to maximum of 28 and 31 wt% for the highest add-ons of print cloth and twill, respectively. The results from cotton fabrics treated with CN-3 demonstrated a higher LOI value as well as a higher char yield because of the effectiveness of phosphorus and nitrogen as a flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Furthermore, FT-IR and SEM were used to characterize the chemical structure on the treated fabrics as well as the surface morphology of char areas of treated and untreated fabrics. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.