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The application of Ce-doped titania nanotubes in the intumescent flame-retardant PS/MAPP/PER systems


Yuan Hu, State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, P.R. China.



In this work, we reported the synthesis, characterization of Ce-doped titania nanotubes (Ce-TNTs), and application in flame retardancy of an intumescent flame-retardant polystyrene (PS/IFR) system. The flame retardancy of polystyrene (PS) composite that was composed of pentaerythritol, microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate, and PS was enhanced significantly by adding a small amount (0.1 wt%) of (Ce-TNTs). The thermal properties of the flame-retardant PS were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL-94), scanning electronic microscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and the real-time Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The maximal decomposition rate temperature of PS/IFR containing Ce-TNTs in air is much higher than that of other PS composite without Ce-TNTs. The LOI value of PS/IFR that contained 0.1 wt% of Ce-TNTs was increased from 27.0 to 28.5, and the UL-94 rating was also enhanced to V-0 from no rating when the total loading of additive was the same. The real-time FTIR showed that the degradation process was changed after the addition of TNTs. All results indicated that Ce-TNTs had a significant synergistic effect on the flame retardancy of PS/IFR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.