Exfoliated graphite has been synthesized by first synthesizing H2SO4 intercalated compound in a H2O2-H2SO4 mixture, followed by exfoliation under microwave irradiation. Poly(arylene disulfide)/graphite nanocomposites were then fabricated by absorbing cyclic(arylene disulfide) oligomers into the pores of exfoliated graphite. Subsequently, the nanocomposite precursor was subjected to heat treatment to carry out the in situ ring-opening polymerization of the oligomers via free radical mechanism. The as-prepared nanocomposite exhibited a exfoliated nanostructure as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The nanocomposite with a very small amount of graphite, 5 wt%, possesses a highly electrical conductivity of 4 S/cm, therefore, many applications can be found as conductive materials. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.