Recent evidence from genetic studies suggests that abnormalities of some of the members of the cyclin superfamily may be intimately associated with tumourigenesis, most likely through deregulation of the cell cycle control. In an attempt to elucidate the potential role of cyclin D1 (a gene located within the 11q13 amplicon and a candidate BCL-1, PRAD-1 oncogene) in the pathogenesis of human neoplasias, we have developed and characterized a novel monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing cyclin D1 protein in various assays including immunohistochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections. Using the DCS-6 antibody as a tool, we now show a characteristic cell cycle-dependent variation of the cyclin D1 protein in human cultured cells and report on the first immunohistochemical study of this G1 cyclin in a range of normal human tissues and breast carcinomas. Analysis of normal tissues revealed generally low levels of cyclin D1 protein, mainly restricted to the proliferative zones of some epithelial tissues, and the lack of its expression in several human tissues including lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils. In contrast, pronounced overexpression/nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 was found in 37 per cent of cases in a series of 35 primary ductal carcinomas of the breast. We conclude that the DCS-6 antibody provides a potentially useful tool for the establishment of simple methods suitable for verifying any diagnostic and/or prognostic value of this novel marker on large series of histological specimens and opens the way for biochemical, immunocytochemical, and immunohistochemical studies of the role played by cyclin D1 aberrations in human oncogenesis.