• 1
    Goff SP. Retroviridae: the retroviruses and their replication. In Fields Virology (4th edn), KnipeDM, HowleyPM (eds). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2001; 18711939.
  • 2
    Green PL, Chen ISY. Human T-cell leukemia viruses types 1 and 2. In Fields Virology (4th edn), KnipeDM, HowleyPM (eds). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2001; 19411969.
  • 3
    Asher DM, Goudsmit J, Pomeroy KL, Garruto RM, Bakker M, Ono SG, et al. Antibodies to HTLV-I in populations of the southwestern Pacific. J Med Virol 1988; 26: 339351.
  • 4
    Azran I, Schavinsky-Khrapunsky Y, Priel E, Huleihel M, Aboud M. Implications of the evolution pattern of human T-cell leukemia retroviruses on their pathogenic virulence. Int J Mol Med 2004; 14: 909915.
  • 5
    Vandamme AM, Salemi M, Van BM, Liu HF, Van LK, Van RM, et al. African origin of human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) supported by a potential new HTLV-2d subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies. J Virol 1998; 72: 43274340.
  • 6
    Calattini S, Chevalier SA, Duprez R, Bassot S, Froment A, Mahieux R, et al. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in central Africa. Retrovirology 2005; 2: 30.
  • 7
    Wolfe ND, Heneine W, Carr JK, Garcia AD, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U, et al. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 79947999.
  • 8
    Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Sagawa K, Takatsuki K, Uchino H. Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 1977; 50: 481492.
  • 9
    Matsuoka M. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and the onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Retrovirology 2005; 2: 27.
  • 10
    Arisawa K, Soda M, Endo S, Kurokawa K, Katamine S, Shimokawa I, et al. Evaluation of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma incidence and its impact on non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in southwestern Japan. Int J Cancer 2000; 85: 319324.
  • 11
    Manns A, Cleghorn FR, Falk RT, Hanchard B, Jaffe ES, Bartholomew C, et al. Role of HTLV-I in development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The HTLV Lymphoma Study Group. Lancet 1993; 342: 14471450.
  • 12
    Jolly C, Sattentau QJ. Retroviral spread by induction of virological synapses. Traffic 2004; 5: 643650.
  • 13
    Poiesz BJ, Poiesz MJ, Choi D. The human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia viruses. Cancer Invest 2003; 21: 253277.
  • 14
    Gaudray G, Gachon F, Basbous J, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Devaux C, Mesnard JM. The complementary strand of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 RNA genome encodes a bZIP transcription factor that down-regulates viral transcription. J Virol 2002; 76: 12 81312 822.
  • 15
    Grassmann R, Dengler C, Muller-Fleckenstein I, Fleckenstein B, McGuire K, Dokhelar MC, et al. Transformation to continuous growth of primary human T lymphocytes by human T-cell leukemia virus type I X-region genes transduced by a Herpesvirus saimiri vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86: 33513355.
  • 16
    Iwanaga Y, Tsukahara T, Ohashi T, Tanaka Y, Arai M, Nakamura M, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax protein abrogates interleukin-2 dependence in a mouse T-cell line. J Virol 1999; 73: 12711277.
  • 17
    Jeang KT, Giam CZ, Majone F, Aboud M. Life, death, and tax: role of HTLV-I oncoprotein in genetic instability and cellular transformation. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 31 99131 994.
  • 18
    Harhaj EW, Harhaj NS. Mechanisms of persistent NF-kappaB activation by HTLV-I tax. IUBMB Life 2005; 57: 8391.
  • 19
    Ballard DW, Bohnlein E, Lowenthal JW, Wano Y, Franza BR, Greene WC. HTLV-I tax induces cellular proteins that activate the kappa B element in the IL-2 receptor alpha gene. Science 1988; 241: 16521655.
  • 20
    Siekevitz M, Feinberg MB, Holbrook N, Wong-Staal F, Greene WC. Activation of interleukin 2 and interleukin 2 receptor (Tac) promoter expression by the trans-activator (tat) gene product of human T-cell leukemia virus, type I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987; 84: 53895393.
  • 21
    Mori N, Fujii M, Cheng G, Ikeda S, Yamasaki Y, Yamada Y, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax protein induces the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL in human T-cells through nuclear factor-kappaB and c-AMP responsive element binding protein pathways. Virus Genes 2001; 22: 279287.
  • 22
    Kawakami H, Tomita M, Matsuda T, Ohta T, Tanaka Y, Fujii M, et al. Transcriptional activation of survivin through the NF-kappaB pathway by human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax. Int J Cancer 2005; 115: 967974.
  • 23
    Gatza ML, Chandhasin C, Ducu RI, Marriott SJ. Impact of transforming viruses on cellular mutagenesis, genome stability, and cellular transformation. Environ Mol Mutagen 2005; 45: 304325.
  • 24
    Akagi T, Ono H, Shimotohno K. Expression of cell-cycle regulatory genes in HTLV-I infected T-cell lines: possible involvement of Tax1 in the altered expression of cyclin D2, p18Ink4 and p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1. Oncogene 1996; 12: 16451652.
  • 25
    Haller K, Wu Y, Derow E, Schmitt I, Jeang KT, Grassmann R. Physical interaction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 stimulates the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Mol Cell Biol 2002; 22: 33273338.
  • 26
    Lemoine FJ, Marriott SJ. Accelerated G(1) phase progression induced by the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax oncoprotein. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 31 85131 857.
  • 27
    Pise-Masison CA, Mahieux R, Radonovich M, Jiang H, Brady JN. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I Tax protein utilizes distinct pathways for p53 inhibition that are cell type-dependent. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 200205.
  • 28
    Jeang KT, Widen SG, Semmes OJ, Wilson SH. HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene. Science 1990; 247: 10821084.
  • 29
    Lemoine FJ, Kao SY, Marriott SJ. Suppression of DNA repair by HTLV type 1 Tax correlates with Tax trans-activation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene expression. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000; 16: 16231627.
  • 30
    Liu B, Hong S, Tang Z, Yu H, Giam CZ. HTLV-I Tax directly binds the Cdc20-associated anaphase-promoting complex and activates it ahead of schedule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 6368.
  • 31
    Hollsberg P, Ausubel LJ, Hafler DA. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-induced T cell activation. Resistance to TGF-beta 1-induced suppression. J Immunol 1994; 153: 566573.
  • 32
    Ye J, Silverman L, Lairmore MD, Green PL. HTLV-1 Rex is required for viral spread and persistence in vivo but is dispensable for cellular immortalization in vitro. Blood 2003; 102: 39633969.
  • 33
    Johnson JM, Nicot C, Fullen J, Ciminale V, Casareto L, Mulloy JC, et al. Free major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chain is preferentially targeted for degradation by human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 p12(I) protein. J Virol 2001; 75: 60866094.
  • 34
    Matsuoka M. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I and adult T-cell leukemia. Oncogene 2003; 22: 51315140.
  • 35
    Okayama A, Stuver S, Matsuoka M, Ishizaki J, Tanaka G, Kubuki Y, et al. Role of HTLV-1 proviral DNA load and clonality in the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in asymptomatic carriers. Int J Cancer 2004; 110: 621625.
  • 36
    Bangham CR. The immune control and cell-to-cell spread of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. J Gen Virol 2003; 84: 31773189.
  • 37
    Kannagi M, Ohashi T, Harashima N, Hanabuchi S, Hasegawa A. Immunological risks of adult T-cell leukemia at primary HTLV-I infection. Trends Microbiol 2004; 12: 346352.
  • 38
    Rickinson AB, Kieff E. Epstein–Barr virus. In Fields Virology (4th edn), KnipeDM, HowleyPM (eds). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2001; 25752627.
  • 39
    Thorley-Lawson DA, Gross A. Persistence of the Epstein–Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 13281337.
  • 40
    Swinnen LJ. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated malignancies. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2000; 28: 3843.
  • 41
    Kieff E, Rickinson AB. Epstein–Barr virus and its replication. In Fields Virology (4th edn), KnipeDM, HowleyPM (eds). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2001; 25112573.
  • 42
    Young LS, Rickinson AB. Epstein–Barr virus: 40 years on. Nature Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 757768.
  • 43
    Wilson JB, Bell JL, Levine AJ. Expression of Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 induces B cell neoplasia in transgenic mice. EMBO J 1996; 15: 31173126.
  • 44
    Kang MS, Lu H, Yasui T, Sharpe A, Warren H, Cahir-McFarland E, et al. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 does not induce lymphoma in transgenic FVB mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005; 102: 820825.
  • 45
    Kennedy G, Komano J, Sugden B. Epstein–Barr virus provides a survival factor to Burkitt's lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 14 26914 274.
  • 46
    Zimber-Strobl U, Strobl LJ. EBNA2 and Notch signalling in Epstein–Barr virus mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes. Semin Cancer Biol 2001; 11: 423434.
  • 47
    Lam N, Sugden B. CD40 and its viral mimic, LMP1: similar means to different ends. Cell Signal 2003; 15: 916.
  • 48
    Kieser A, Kilger E, Gires O, Ueffing M, Kolch W, Hammerschmidt W. Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 triggers AP-1 activity via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase cascade. EMBO J 1997; 16: 64786485.
  • 49
    Gires O, Kohlhuber F, Kilger E, Baumann M, Kieser A, Kaiser C, et al. Latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein–Barr virus interacts with JAK3 and activates STAT proteins. EMBO J 1999; 18: 30643073.
  • 50
    Caldwell RG, Brown RC, Longnecker R. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A-induced B-cell survival in two unique classes of EmuLMP2A transgenic mice. J Virol 2000; 74: 11011113.
  • 51
    Portis T, Dyck P, Longnecker R. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) LMP2A induces alterations in gene transcription similar to those observed in Reed–Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 2003; 102: 41664178.
  • 52
    Fukuda M, Longnecker R. Latent membrane protein 2A inhibits transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Virol 2004; 78: 16971705.
  • 53
    Hislop AD, Annels NE, Gudgeon NH, Leese AM, Rickinson AB. Epitope-specific evolution of human CD8(+) T cell responses from primary to persistent phases of Epstein–Barr virus infection. J Exp Med 2002; 195: 893905.
  • 54
    Lee SP, Brooks JM, Al-Jarrah H, Thomas WA, Haigh TA, Taylor GS, et al. CD8 T cell recognition of endogenously expressed Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. J Exp Med 2004; 199: 14091420.
  • 55
    Khan G, Lake A, Shield L, Freeland J, Andrew L, Alexander FE, et al. Phenotype and frequency of Epstein–Barr virus-infected cells in pretreatment blood samples from patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol 2005; 129: 511519.
  • 56
    Moormann AM, Chelimo K, Sumba OP, Lutzke ML, Ploutz-Snyder R, Newton D, et al. Exposure to holoendemic malaria results in elevated Epstein–Barr virus loads in children. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 12331238.
  • 57
    Berns A. Cancer: two in one. Nature 2005; 436: 787789.
  • 58
    Natkunam Y, Lossos IS, Taidi B, Zhao S, Lu X, Ding F, et al. Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein, a new marker of germinal center B-cell derivation. Blood 2005; 105: 39793986.
  • 59
    Bellan C, Lazzi S, Hummel M, Palummo N, de Santi M, Amato T, et al. Immunoglobulin gene analysis reveals 2 distinct cells of origin for EBV-positive and EBV-negative Burkitt lymphomas. Blood 2005; 106: 10311036.
  • 60
    Glaser SL, Jarrett RF. The epidemiology of Hodgkin's disease. In Hodgkin's Disease (9th edn), DiehlV (ed). Bailliere Tindall: London, 1996; 401416.
  • 61
    Macfarlane GJ, Evstifeeva T, Boyle P, Grufferman S. International patterns in the occurrence of Hodgkin's disease in children and young adult males. Int J Cancer 1995; 61: 165169.
  • 62
    Gutensohn NM, Shapiro DS. Social class risk factors among children with Hodgkin's disease. Int J Cancer 1982; 30: 433435.
  • 63
    Jarrett RF. Viruses and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol 2002; 13(S1): 2329.
  • 64
    Weiss LM, Strickler JG, Warnke RA, Purtilo DT, Sklar J. Epstein–Barr viral DNA in tissues of Hodgkin's disease. Am J Pathol 1987; 129: 8691.
  • 65
    Jarrett RF, Armstrong AA, Alexander E. Epidemiology of EBV and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol 1996; 7: S5S10.
  • 66
    Kuppers R, Rajewsky K. The origin of Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's disease. Annu Rev Immunol 1998; 16: 471493.
  • 67
    Chaganti S, Bell AI, Begue-Pastor N, Milner AE, Drayson M, Gordon J, et al. Epstein–Barr virus infection in vitro can rescue germinal centre B cells with inactivated immunoglobulin genes. Blood 2005; epub ahead of print.
  • 68
    Bechtel D, Kurth J, Unkel C, Kueppers R. Transformation of BCR-deficient germinal center B cells by EBV supports a major role of the virus in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin and post transplant lymphoma. Blood 2005; epub ahead of print.
  • 69
    Mancao C, Altmann M, Jungnickel B, Hammerschmidt W. Rescue of ‘crippled’ germinal center B cells from apoptosis by Epstein–Barr virus. Blood 2005; epub ahead of print.
  • 70
    Kilger E, Kieser A, Baumann M, Hammerschmidt W. Epstein–Barr virus-mediated B-cell proliferation is dependent upon latent membrane protein 1, which simulates an activated CD40 receptor. EMBO J 1998; 17: 17001709.
  • 71
    Schwering I, Brauninger A, Klein U, Jungnickel B, Tinguely M, Diehl V, et al. Loss of the B-lineage-specific gene expression program in Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 2003; 101: 15051512.
  • 72
    Harris NL, Swerdlow SH, Frizzera G, Knowles DM. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. In World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, JaffeES, HarrisNL, SteinH, VardimanJW (eds). IARC: Lyon, 2001; 264271.
  • 73
    Young L, Alfieri C, Hennessy K, Evans H, O'Hara C, Anderson KC, et al. Expression of Epstein–Barr virus transformation-associated genes in tissues of patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disease. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 10801085.
  • 74
    Knowles DM, Cesarman E, Chadburn A, Frizzera G, Chen J, Rose EA, et al. Correlative morphologic and molecular genetic analysis demonstrates three distinct categories of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood 1995; 85: 552565.
  • 75
    Timms JM, Bell A, Flavell JR, Murray PG, Rickinson AB, Traverse-Glehen A, et al. Target cells of Epstein–Barr-virus (EBV)-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease: similarities to EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma. Lancet 2003; 361: 217223.
  • 76
    Stevens SJ, Vervoort MB, van den Brule AJ, Meenhorst PL, Meijer CJ, Middeldorp JM. Monitoring of Epstein–Barr virus DNA load in peripheral blood by quantitative competitive PCR. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 28522857.
  • 77
    Chan JKC, Jaffe ES, Ralfkiaer E. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. In World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, JaffeES, HarrisNL, SteinH, VardimanJW (eds). IARC: Lyon, 2001; 204207.
  • 78
    Chan JKC, Wong KF, Jaffe ES, Ralfkiaer E. Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia. In World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, JaffeES, HarrisNL, SteinH, VardimanJW (eds). IARC: Lyon, 2001; 198200.
  • 79
    Kanavaros P, de Bruin PC, Briere J, Meijer CJ, Gaulard P. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in extranodal T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (T-NHL). Identification of nasal T-NHL as a distinct clinicopathological entity associated with EBV. Leuk Lymphoma 1995; 18: 2734.
  • 80
    Schulz TF. The pleiotropic effects of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus. J Pathol 2006; 208: 187198.
  • 81
    Dupin N, Diss TL, Kellam P, Tulliez M, Du MQ, Sicard D, et al. HHV-8 is associated with a plasmablastic variant of Castleman disease that is linked to HHV-8-positive plasmablastic lymphoma. Blood 2000; 95: 14061412.
  • 82
    Du MQ, Diss TC, Liu H, Ye H, Hamoudi RA, Cabecadas J, et al. KSHV- and EBV-associated germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder. Blood 2002; 100: 34153418.
  • 83
    Nador RG, Cesarman E, Chadburn A, Dawson DB, Ansari MQ, Sald J, et al. Primary effusion lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity associated with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus. Blood 1996; 88: 645656.
  • 84
    Raphael M, Borisch B, Jaffe ES. Lymphomas associated with infection by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). In World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, JaffeES, HarrisNL, SteinH, VardimanJW (eds). IARC: Lyon, 2001; 260263.
  • 85
    Chadburn A, Hyjek E, Mathew S, Cesarman E, Said J, Knowles DM. KSHV-positive solid lymphomas represent an extra-cavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28: 14011416.
  • 86
    Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Raphael M, Audouin J, Diebold J, Lisse I, Pedersen C, et al. In situ demonstration of Epstein–Barr virus small RNAs (EBER 1) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: correlation with tumor morphology and primary site. Blood 1993; 82: 619624.
  • 87
    Delecluse HJ, Anagnostopoulos I, Dallenbach F, Hummel M, Marafioti T, Schneider U, et al. Plasmablastic lymphomas of the oral cavity: a new entity associated with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 1997; 89: 14131420.
  • 88
    Carbone A, Gloghini A, Gaidano G. Is plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity an HHV-8-associated disease? Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28: 15381540.
  • 89
    Cioc AM, Allen C, Kalmar JR, Suster S, Baiocchi R, Nuovo GJ. Oral plasmablastic lymphomas in AIDS patients are associated with human herpesvirus 8. Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28: 4146.
  • 90
    Mazzaro C, Tirelli U, Pozzato G. Hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 10 years later. Dig Liver Dis 2005; 37: 219226.
  • 91
    Mele A, Pulsoni A, Bianco E, Musto P, Szklo A, Sanpaolo MG, et al. Hepatitis C virus and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: an Italian multicenter case–control study. Blood 2003; 102: 996999.
  • 92
    Engels EA, Chatterjee N, Cerhan JR, Davis S, Cozen W, Severson RK, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of the NCI–SEER multi-center case–control study. Int J Cancer 2004; 111: 7680.
  • 93
    Shah K, Nathanson N. Human exposure to SV40: review and comment. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 103: 112.
  • 94
    Sangar D, Pipkin PA, Wood DJ, Minor PD. Examination of poliovirus vaccine preparations for SV40 sequences. Biologicals 1999; 27: 110.
  • 95
    Butel JS, Lednicky JA. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 119134.
  • 96
    Vilchez RA, Madden CR, Kozinetz CA, Halvorson SJ, White ZS, Jorgensen JL, et al. Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet 2002; 359: 817823.
  • 97
    Shivapurkar N, Harada K, Reddy J, Scheuermann RH, Xu Y, McKenna RW, et al. Presence of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in human lymphomas. Lancet 2002; 359: 851852.
  • 98
    MacKenzie J, Wilson KS, Perry J, Gallagher A, Jarrett RF. Association between simian virus 40 DNA and lymphoma in the United Kingdom. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 10011003.
  • 99
    Capello D, Rossi D, Gaudino G, Carbone A, Gaidano G. Simian virus 40 infection in lymphoproliferative disorders. Lancet 2003; 361: 8889.
  • 100
    Martini F, Dolcetti R, Gloghini A, Iaccheri L, Carbone A, Boiocchi M, et al. Simian-virus-40 footprints in human lymphoproliferative disorders of HIV− and HIV+ patients. Int J Cancer 1998; 78: 669674.
  • 101
    Nakatsuka S, Liu A, Dong Z, Nomura S, Takakuwa T, Miyazato H, et al. Simian virus 40 sequences in malignant lymphomas in Japan. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 76067608.
  • 102
    Brousset P, de Araujo V, Gascoyne RD. Immunohistochemical investigation of SV40 large T antigen in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int J Cancer 2004; 112: 533535.
  • 103
    Vilchez RA, Lopez-Terrada D, Middleton JR, Finch CJ, Killen DE, Zanwar P, et al. Simian virus 40 tumor antigen expression and immunophenotypic profile of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Virology 2005; 342: 3846.
  • 104
    McNees AL, White ZS, Zanwar P, Vilchez RA, Butel JS. Specific and quantitative detection of human polyomaviruses BKV, JCV, and SV40 by real time PCR. J Clin Virol 2005; 34: 5262.
  • 105
    Lopez-Rios F, Illei PB, Rusch V, Ladanyi M. Evidence against a role for SV40 infection in human mesotheliomas and high risk of false-positive PCR results owing to presence of SV40 sequences in common laboratory plasmids. Lancet 2004; 364: 11571166.