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Keywords:

  • Epstein–Barr virus;
  • post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder;
  • virus-associated hemophagocytosis syndrome;
  • Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome

Abstract

A 23-month-old boy with Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-one locus mismatched, unmanipulated allogeneic bone marrow graft from his mother. An Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) of donor cell origin and hemophagocytosis syndrome with fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, seizures, involuntary movements and pancytopenia developed 52 days after transplantation. It was difficult to decide on the treatment strategy because the patient presented with B-cell hyperplasia that morphologically appeared malignant but was oligoclonal by heavy-chain analyses. Despite of donor leukocyte transfusion, low dose chemotherapy, and anti-B cell monoclonal antibody immunotherapy, the patient died 107 days after transplantation. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.