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Keywords:

  • anti-CD20 antibody;
  • autoimmunity;
  • diabetes;
  • hemolytic anemia;
  • rituximab;
  • thrombocytopenia

Abstract

Thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (Evans syndrome) with the presence of both warm and cold autoantibodies (mixed type) are rare in the pediatric age group. This condition may be associated with other autoimmune disorders and is notoriously difficult to treat. This case describes an adolescent male who presented with rapid onset Evans syndrome and diabetes. After failing to respond to high dose prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient was successfully treated with monoclonal antibody against CD20 (anti-CD20). This suggests that anti-CD20 is a valuable treatment for severe warm and cold antibody mediated Evans syndrome, and possibly for select cases of antibody mediated diabetes. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.