A 3-year-old female presented with a large tumor occupying the right thoracic space. Open biopsy revealed the pathological diagnosis of pleuropulmonary blastoma. After the first-line chemotherapy, the patient underwent surgical resection, then two courses of high-dose chemotherapy. Three years later, follicular carcinoma of the right thyroid lobe was found, so a right hemithyroidectomy was performed. Five months later, the thyroid tumor recurred. The remaining thyroid lobe was completely excised and radioiodine therapy was administered. The patient has remained tumor-free for 3 years. The etiology and treatment of the uncommon combination of pleuropulmonary blastoma and thyroid carcinoma is discussed. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:901–902. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.