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Timing of menarche among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

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Abstract

Background

The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with abnormal timing of menarche among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Procedure

Self-reported age of menarche was determined among 949 female ALL survivors participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a cohort of 5-year survivors of common pediatric cancers diagnosed from 1970 to 1986, and compared with 1,128 siblings.

Results

The majority of survivors (92%) and siblings (97%) reported menarche between the ages of 10 and 16. Survivors treated with chemotherapy alone, including those exposed to alkylating agents, experienced menarche at a similar rate to siblings. However, compared to chemotherapy alone, cranial radiotherapy was associated with early menarche (age < 10; OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.1, 18.5) while craniospinal radiotherapy was associated with both early (OR 8.6, 95% CI 1.9, 38.6) and late (age > 16; OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.4, 16.7) menarche. There were no differences in effect between <20 and ≥20 Gy radiotherapy doses. In multivariable analysis, younger age at diagnosis was an independent risk factor for early menarche.

Conclusions

Few female childhood ALL survivors experienced menarche outside of the normal range. Alkylating agent exposure was not associated with abnormal timing. However, those exposed to cranial and craniospinal radiotherapy, especially at a young age, should be monitored closely for abnormal timing of menarche. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:854–858. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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