As increasing numbers of childhood cancer patients are surviving, the long-term complications of the disease and its treatment have become ever more increasingly important. Reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk have been reported during and after treatment of children with cancer. The causes of osteoporosis are multifactorial. Among others, the disease itself, chemotherapy, irradiation and genetic susceptibility play a role. Bone mineral density in later life depends largely on the peak bone mass achieved in adolescence or young adulthood. Therefore, optimizing peak bone mass is of clinical importance. Preventive and therapeutic strategies, such as calcium and vitamin D supplementation, physical activity and bisphosphonates, are considered. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:474–478. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.