Improvements in childhood cancer therapy have led to increasing numbers of long-term survivors. These survivors are at risk for a variety of late effects due to the disease itself, treatment exposures (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), underlying medical problems, and health behaviors. The COG LTFU Guidelines are risk-based, exposure-related recommendations for the identification and management of late effects due to therapies utilized in the treatment of childhood cancer, and are designed for asymptomatic survivors presenting for routine medical follow-up 2 or more years after completion of cancer therapy. The COG Guidelines Task Force on Urinary Tract Complications conducted an extensive review of the medical literature via MEDLINE. Specific treatment exposures which were reviewed include nephrectomy, chemotherapy regimens known to be nephrotoxic (cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, and methotrexate), and renal irradiation. Literature sources were ranked according to the strength of evidence and are cited in the review. This review summarizes the literature that supported the recommendations for cancer survivors at risk for nephrotoxicity previously outlined in the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers (COG LTFU Guidelines). Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:724–731. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.