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Keywords:

  • immunology;
  • immunotherapy;
  • neuroblastoma

Abstract

Neuroblastoma is one of the commonest and most aggressive paediatric malignancies. The majority of children present with metastatic disease for which long-term survival remains poor despite intensive multi-modal therapies. Toxicity from current treatment regimes is already significant, and there is little room to further intensify therapy. Alternative treatment strategies are therefore needed in order to improve survival. Immunotherapy is an attractive therapeutic option for these children as it potentially offers a much more specific and less toxic treatment than conventional therapies. This review discusses the different immunotherapy strategies that may be useful in neuroblastoma, their advantages and disadvantages and the challenges that need to be overcome to successfully use them clinically. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:931–940. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.