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Keywords:

  • antimicrobials;
  • epidemiology;
  • leukemia;
  • pediatrics;
  • renal failure

Abstract

Background

In children receiving treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) there is often concern for the development of acute renal failure (ARF). Despite this, data are limited to define the incidence of ARF in this population. This study aims to evaluate the rate of ARF in AML patients and to delineate the impact of age, race, various co-morbid conditions and antimicrobial agents on the development of ARF.

Methods

A cohort of newly diagnosed AML patients from children's hospitals across the United States was identified using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. Information regarding demographics, discharge diagnoses, pharmaceutical exposures, and hospital resource utilization were collected for each hospitalization for up to 1 year from AML diagnosis. Cox regression analysis was used to define the hazard ratios for development of ARF by demographic variables, co-morbid conditions, and exposure to various antimicrobial agents.

Results

Within 1 year of AML diagnosis, 135 (16.2%) patients were diagnosed with ARF. After adjustment for the presence of co-morbid conditions, the risk for ARF was greater in older patients and in black patients. Vancomycin exposure duration of greater than 48 hr and carbapenem exposure duration greater than 10 days were associated with an increased risk for ARF.

Conclusion

ARF is a relatively common problem in children with AML. Future studies should address the different risks of ARF by age and race. Empiric therapy with potentially nephrotoxic agents did not increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. Patients on prolonged vancomycin therapy should be monitored closely for development of ARF. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;55:655–661. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.