Childhood cancer treatment completion is a significant milestone. However, coming off treatment may be a time of psychological vulnerability for parents. This review assesses published research (1979–2009) on the psychosocial impact of treatment completion on parents. Fifteen articles met all inclusion criteria and demonstrated that while they celebrate treatment completion, parents (particularly mothers) can experience significant distress, including fear of recurrence, fatigue, and loneliness. Distress appears to ease with time, possibly as the perceived risk of relapse declines. Continued psychosocial support specifically targeting parents' risk perceptions, physical and emotional fatigue, social isolation, and parenting concerns post-treatment is warranted. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:524–531. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.